Terror Strikes Kathmandu: Bombs Explode in Five Places

“Two died: Police”

Two innocent people are confirmed dead in a series of bomb explosions in three busy public areas of Kathmandu city. More than 25 people have been injured, 10 of them serious. Bombs exploded simultaneously in three separate places- Tripureshwor, Kalimati and Balaju- at around 4:30 PM this afternoon. According to Avenues TV, a previously little heard terror outfit Terai Tiger has taken responsibility of the blasts. A reporter of the TV station said from Rhautahat that the organization called him to take responsibility of the blasts. Sagarmatha TV is also reporting that two other bombs have blasted in Sundhara and Kirtipur. Bombs exploded in a public vehicle in Balaju. All passengers, except the driver and his assistant, were injured in the powerful blast that destroyed the vehicle. Another bomb went off in Tripureshwor’s World Trade Center where most of the injured were students from nearby school. These strikes come at a time when the nation is gearing up for the Constituent Assembly elections that is scheduled to be held in less than 80 days.

Recent: Nepali Congress leader Arjun Narsingh KC, after visiting the hospital where injured are being treated, said: This is a terrorist activity and a conspiracy to derail the election of Constituent Assembly and against the democratic achievements that the country has seen so far.

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164 thoughts on “Terror Strikes Kathmandu: Bombs Explode in Five Places

  1. Welcome to the NEW DEMOCRATIC NEPAL !!!

    Innocent people bombed
    No petrol
    No gas
    No electricity
    No water
    Garbage everywhere
    Bandhs everyday
    Robbery,murder,theft
    Students locking up teachers
    ” voluntary ” donations
    “democratic” traffic
    Guns
    Khukuris

    The list goes on…………………..

    We certainly have PROGRESSED… compared to what Nepal was15 years back….

  2. S 1:17 you are showing your true class with the filthy language you use. Makes me wonder what sort of sad family you belong to. You accuse others of selling out to India yet can recite the Indian national anthem by heart. What sort of hypocrisy is that?

  3. Baje:

    “See how much longer you can keep fooling the Nepali people with your “as much if not more” bull sh*t.”

    Trust me, he isn’t fooling anyone. Well maybe the 3 people that visit his blog but that’s about it!

    The purpose of the blasts was to create uncertainty, chaos and a sense of insecurity so that it would seem as if the atmosphere isn’t condusive enough to hold CA elections. Well there is only ONE group in Nepal that has publicly said they don’t want CA elections.

  4. Hey Bhudai so you think the Terai Army claim is just a smokescreen of the Maoists? I really detest the Maoists and their YCL thugs but I still find it difficult to believe they were behind yesterdays tragic bomb blasts. Why would they expose themselves like this when they have publicly stated their opposition to the CA election within the present dates? Believe me something is really wrong here.

  5. No doubt that many people feel it is the maoists. Of course, they are always Prachanda’s butt l1ckers who jump into to say otherwise.

    However, it could be anyone including the maoists, royalists or even one of the parties.
    The maoists and gang will obviously try and say it is the “royalists”. As we know if it rains it’s the royalists, if it pours it’s the royalists.
    We all get the idea. It of course works all ways. As Horning said the same goes for the maoists as well.

    However, the fact is this, some Teari group have claimed it – could be and maybe it’s just bogus to entice communal violence against madhesis residing in Kathmandu – we know all the culprits who would want that.

    I doubt the bomb was geared towards maoists, as there were plenty around the area at the time, but no one placed a bomb where the YCL thugs were – odd for a Terai group who you would think would want to cause maoists all the damage as they have done in the Terai. Or even if they were royalists you would think the target would be maoists and not school students at a bus stand.

    But the most important point being, that Prachanda has called this criminal no matter what the objective and he is correct, just as his parties war and bombings (the Chitwan one being the most known) were also criminal no matter what the objective – polical objectives also don’t make it alright, I hope the comrade is now getting the point.

    Further, we all know that most of these Terai groups werre maoists at one point or another and have been trained by Pranchanda and co., including to make bombs and detonate them. I wonder – if little elves are taught by big elves to make rain then who is responsible for the rain when the little elves grow up?

  6. For those of you who can’t already tell. That wasn’t really me up their typing the “I love Maoism”

    Seriously people, show some maturity. If you consider that acceptable behavior here than your country has a long path ahead of it.

  7. Neil,
    You say that
    “To be clear here, The Maoists don’t fear the elections. The Maoists fear that the NC is never going to make their stance on monarchy clear, then write it into the constitution after they win the elections. If that happens, I doubt they will accept the results.”

    But let me make several points:
    1. The maoists have always claimed popularity, therefore why are they so bothered about what the Congress may do, all they need is to win the elections which they were so confident of winning. They don’t even want the Congress around and have said they would outdo them come elections, all they need is 51% of the votes, easy no buddy?

    2. Maoists should be bothered about winning elections and their agenda not what other parties agendas are. They should not be dictating how other parties go about the elections, the voters will decide whether to vote for a Congress who goes with a republican agenda, a monarchy agenda or an agenda which they shall vote and decide on after the elections. The Congress and their candidates are taking the risk either way, it is not for the maoists to decide what the Congress party’s agenda should be – in a democracy that is.

    3. The maoists do fear elections. They should’nt because I bvelieve they should garner 15-20% of the votes by hook or by crook, a far cry from the almost zero they got in the last two elections they participated in. And again, why bother about a single party like the Congress if they don’t fear elections. All their leaders have always said that they would win anyway.

    4. If they lose the elections , they will not accept the results, I’ve always known that, this is why all this has been a waste of time.

  8. Pataki Girija is mainly responsible for all sorts of instability and disasters in the country. If Prachande’s Habaldar Krishna sitaula can not maintain law and order in the country, why does not he sack him? He does not care whether people are being robbed or killed as long as he can hold PM position.
    He is considered to be the most unauspicious animal in Nepal. That is why he is also called GIDDHE BUDHO (OLD VULTURE). When a vulture lands on the roof of our house, it is believed to bring something very bad to our family. It is widely considered that this OLD VULTURE IS expected to bring numerous miseries and bad lucks to Nepal down the road like in the past since this OLD VULTURE has landed on the roof of Nepal (singha Durbar). In the past bad incidents like PIA plane crash, Thai Plane crash, Palace massacre and numerous other bad lncidents happened during his tenure. We must get rid of him as soon as possible for the sake of the country.

  9. Losers from West like Neil have a newfound affinity towards communism to wash some his parents sins committed during the cold war…. and he might as well keep away from what’s happening in Nepal and let the locals deal with it. I am sure there are some streets back home that Neil can go and do the dirty jobs at.
    Given what had transpired in the last three weeks where we are witnessing incrasing restlessness among the Maoists, especially with Teacher turned Terrorist (TTT) Pushpa Kamal for not having their way– that is why they had come out with the 22 point demand sabre rattling. They have been clearly seeing sign of the people being increasingly wary of their terrorist means and whatever, legitimacy that the terrorists were slowly gaining was very quickly dwindling. And they were not being successful to move any of their agendas. This had caused great frustrations within the terrorist parties and in order to appease the disgruntled ones, TTT had come out with the 22 point agenda. Because he loves his new found metrosexual stature, he couldn’t quite push the envelop far enough to leave the government. Else all his privileges would go out of the window and he would have to again go and find the horse (that he had looted from someone else) to replace his SUV.
    The act we saw in Kathmandu today is caused by the terrorists led by TTT. They have been defeated in all their tactics and now have stooped so low to use these tactics. The professional nature of the bombings clearly suggests that it could have been cuased by people who have used those tactics for sometimes and Madi comes to my mind when I write these. TTT should take full responsibility

  10. for these bombings and be brought to tundikhel for needful action by the people of this country.

  11. wow, we’re getting really superstitious there. but i agree about Sitaula. why does not girija sack him? as PM he must be responsible. Sack Sitaula immediately. Kamal Thapa, though his efforts were ultimately misguided, was perhaps the best Home Minister on record.

  12. Neil,
    I’ll take youtr word for it although if you click on properties – you and your imposter have the same url. Maybe you have a maoists girlfriend who has used your id, but then again if Americans like you support Prachanda so much then not only us Nepalis but the human race has a long path ahead of us.

  13. This is what I think the Maoists believe. I know quite a deal about their ideology and their thinking, but I don’t write for them.

    I think they believe they were hoodwinked by the Nepali congress into giving up various demands that would have made them much more popular with the people, in order to insure that the congress agreed to have the elections on Jun 22. I believe the Maoists knew that their popularity would drop off the further time moved away from April of last year, so they gave up quite a bit to have the elections happen on time. What they found was that the elections were delayed anyway, but they didn’t get the things that they gave up back.

    In addition, the Nepali Congress has been completely ambiguous as to what role they want of the monarchy in the new constitution.

    The congress may do one of two things, It may never make it’s position clear, and then use this unclarity to trick people who want a republic into voting for them. Or, it will delay it’s announcement of support for republic to the very final days of the election, and use the public furor surrounding this to get it’s self elected in large numbers. This will then be used as a mandate to write an extremely conservative constitution.

    On to what I think:
    Both of these things that the congress could do would be completely legal, but thats not really important. What’s important for the stability and future of this country is that all sides participating in these elections feel that they were free, fair, and legitimate. If enough of the effected feel afterward that these elections were a “farce” (I’m not just talking about the Maoists here) and more importantly if the constitution written does not reflect the values of a majority of stakeholders, then the acute disjunct between the system of values and the societal hierarchy will not be resolved, and instability will continue indefinitely.

  14. Kirat,

    How can you say Kamal Thapa was the best home Minister on record when he is one of the main charged by the Rayamajhi commission for “supressing janandolan 2” ? The most historic “revolution” of our people where 19 people were killed amongst 5 millon who came to the streets for 3 weeks even under a shoot at sight curfew order given to the really brutal RNA! How can you say that and not our very own Sitaula, under whose watch we only lost about 200 people in the Terai and others here and there, most recent being the bombings. Not his fault I guess as he did not do anything – infact he has done nothing and is doing nothing so he can’t be held responsible for anyhting.

  15. Mr. Horning, Mr. Horning,

    I believe you if you say that the maoists told you that they believe that they had been hoodwinked, but to say that they actually believe that they have been hoodwinked is laughable. If anyone, we the people are being hoodwinked by the maoists and some of the SPA members at every corner.

    The Congress is not going to take a stance on monarchy before elections. There’s no tricks involved, Congress are the ones who have probaly lost out their vote banks the most due to the Terai parties. People who are now thinking Congress, will most likely vote Congress no matter what. The maoists have nothing to complain about, their base is intact. Besides if that is what the maoists think about the Congress and their “tricks” tell them to use it in elections and see what happens. It’ s not going to change the way people vote. That’s what they are telling you and your buying it – hook, line and sinker.

    Neil,

    you seem to think that this country is hugely republican. That is the flaw with your premise. I think it’s a close call. But not enough to make it the leading agenda. We have many more important issues to tackle, not least the kind of economy we will have after CA.
    It’s great that you have access to maoists say so, but it is equally important to understand all sides of the picture – Congress, UML, RPP, MJF etc etc. not only what the maoists will have you believe.

    Frankly Neil, there are many who are beginning to think the peace process was a farce – one that could be ended with elections, which as you have said could be another farce, BUT this is not only on the head of the Congress as you seem to imply, we Nepalis have most of our eyes on your maoist comrades to see if they won’t make it a farce.

  16. Although, I do agree with Dr. Pradeep Giri of the Congress party about one thing – the parties should agree to keep some seats aside to give to parties like the maoists if they do not win enough seats so that the process of Constitution making is more representative. Although many would disagree with this as it is not the voter’s choice, I agree with Dr. Giri, we can’t afford an end to peace, as peace is the first desire of the Nepalese people.

  17. Neil,
    I beg to differ. You make me crack up sometimes. You are doing a pretty good job writing for them and you claim you don’t write for the maoists. Why say such silly things, we Nepalis understand, you don’t have to chide us. No rickshaw, no problem. okay.

  18. I think this is how the voting with dual system will turn out. The proportional part of it will favour the maoists and smaller parties.

    Congress – 33%
    UML -28%
    Maoist -15%
    RPP-12%
    Madhesi Forum – 8%
    Others – 10%

    The way I see it, if the maoists are republican and the UML are republican and the forum are republican as they have all declared, then they have 51% atleast for a republican order. Why bother with what the Congress think?

  19. I do my best to avoid baiting, so I’m only going to say this once. If I’m among rabid anti-Maoists I look like like a Maoist. If I’m among Maoists and their supporters I don’t very much look like one anymore. You can see that effect here.
    http://neilsnepal.wordpress.com/2007/04/30/my-time-with-the-pla/#more-78
    in the comments section.

    Also here:
    http://neilsnepal.wordpress.com/criticism/
    Although I have quite a few more that I haven’t bothered to add yet.

  20. scoop-hindsight. But it was really unfortunate that he was a misguided royalist. I’m not sure he is a good person but he was a competent Home Minister(for the wrong govt.!).

  21. The ethnic groups are going to win this election by more than 40% and 20% might goes to royalist. Just 40% will be remained to Eight parties.

  22. shivashankar,

    That’s the other school of thought in which case the votes will drop out of UML by 15% and Congress by 8% and maoists by 6%. That’s 29% up for grabs if the ethnic groups campaign well.

  23. Let me summarize Neil’s “thesis” from above: “When it comes to playing non-violent politics, the Maoists aren’t even a match for a Nepali Congress that is unable to articulate its position on the even the most fundamental of issues.”

    He is also reiterating Prachanda’s cry baby statement that polls are not being held when favorable to the Maoists. This in effect, is a restatement of the Maoists’ committment to NOT hold CA elections in November.

    This is the stated Maoist position and thank you Neil, for clarifying beyond a doubt, the top Maoist priority – to disrupt CA elections at all costs.

    Any doubt left on who benefits most from the terror attacks in Kathmandu?

  24. Noone benefits. We all lose, no thanks the the culture of violence glorified by the maoists.

  25. AHIMSA,

    I normally pass by your comments, but this caught my eye while I was scrolling down:

    “True, Maoists as well as the Madhesi groups have done acts of terrorism, but they always attack the state forces or their specific enemies.”

    Yeah, who can forget the three armymen (working for the state) off duty, travelling by bus in Madi, which was blown up by the maoists now YCL probably. Oh forgot – there just happened to be 70 other people in the bus, 30 plus of whome who died including little babies. Or maybe they were all state informants.

    As for the madhesis, I guess you can call the YCL goons killed in Gaur working for the Home Minister Sitaula, therefore the state. But, how about all the others who were beaten to death – you know the ones forced to attend the gathering by the YCL goons on their behalf? Or were they also maoist cadres just like the children we see gathered from schools for Prachanda’s speeches.
    Anyway, thanks for reminding us that the maoists commit acts of terrorism.

  26. Kirat writes.

    “Kamal Thapa, though his efforts were ultimately misguided, was perhaps the best Home Minister on record”

    I think this fool is a moron on this oxymoron.

  27. Kirat,

    Hindsight is something is’nt it? When have we ever had a “right” government?

  28. Finally. Neil makes a statement worthy of note.

    You keep blaming your enemies and stand by to see who the non-Maoist sympathizers (100% – 10%) blame.

    You can’t refute the link between the bombings and the pattern of violence that the Maoists endorse. Nor can you deny that the Maoists assassinated multiple people who ran for elections when Gyanendra was running the show.

    I’m sorry Neil. It wasn’t ok for the Maoists to kill to disrupt the King’s kangaroo elections and it’s even less ok for the Maoists to kill to disrupt the peoples’ CA elections. Killing under whatever political pretext, is not ok with the Nepali people.

    Prachanda is an idiot for publicly declaring the time was not right for the Maoists to go to elections. Those who continue to pretend the Maoists want elections are idiots for towing the Maoist line.

    You say the NC is inadequate for not making it’s stand clear on the monarchy. What does this make the Maoists for not taking a clear, consistent stand on the elections? Does what they say jive with what they are doing?

  29. I don’t have to refute a link that you haven’t shown. Point me to a serious political theorist who says that terrorism is the result of a “culture of violence.” and I’ll start thinking about a refutation.

    The Maoists didn’t just drop out of the sky. Guerrilla warfare doesn’t happen in countries were things are working. All The violence in this country is a result of a complete failure of the elite to address the aspirations of the marginalized. So says published and recognized political theorists:

    ” True guerrilla revolutions are the mark of the most hopelessly intransigent opposition to change; they ought never to occur. Any form of revolution testifies to the failure of politics, but guerrilla revolutions signify the perversion of politics, the need to resort to warfare in order to oust a social group blocking change”

    -Chalmers Johnson.

  30. Fine words, but you’re still struggling to justify the maoists and yet just can’t get the courage to say they are absolutely correct although deep down you believe it.

    So are the maoist terrorists or violent or both?
    Terrorism may not be a result of a culture of violence, but a culture of violence can definitely be the end result of a decade of terrorism. Ask that to your “serious political theorist”.

    The maoists absolutely did’nt just drop out of the sky, they were very much a part of an infant democracy until they decided to terrorise after two attempts and failure at the polls.

    And yes guerilla warfares don’t happen in nations where things are working nor in world’s that are working, but it does’nt mean the majority who don’t want it in any form have to smile and tolerate it. When islamists rammed aeroplanes into the world trade centre it showed that things are’nt working in this world – but by god thje peace loving majority don’t have to accept such behaviour.

  31. sorry for calling kirat a cocsuker. i did not mean to insult the homosexual community of nepal.

  32. You don’t have to (nor are you in any position) “refute” anything. The facts are documented for all to see.

    Point us to a serious political theorist who offers a definition of “terrorism” that is delinked from the brand of violent politics the Maoists continue to exploit (in and out of government). Now that would be a feat!

    You think the Maoists represent the aspirations of the marginalized? Why did Upendra Yadav break away from the Maoists? Why did the Tharus break away from the Maoits? Why have the Janajati people formed their own front? Why do marginalized communities inscreasingly feel the need to disassoicate themselves from the Maoists? Because they feel the Maoits adequately represent their individual causes, through the applciation of violence? Is this why?

    The Maoists have planted the seed of communal violence which is compounded by their inability to deliver ethnicity-based solutions to an already fractuous polity. It is the lies that fed and fuelled the Maoist rebellion that have exposed the Maoists for the tricksters they truly are. The chickens are coming home to roost Mr. Horning, and the Maoists (like the royalists) will pay the price for their misguided experiment.

    Back to the point. You need not bore us with your knowlege of text book political theory. Just look at what Maoism has historically translated to and answer the following question: “Do you think it’s ok to kill in the name of politics?” It’s as simple as that.

  33. Hawa,
    Right on the button. Terrorism does not stem from a culture of violence as Mr. Horning has dubiously pointed out, it does’nt take a serious political theorist to recognise that, just common sense. Terrorism is what it is when most of the citizens are law abiding and peace loving and hence can be terrorized. But the end result as we are seeing is more of it and therefore it has bred a culture of violence as you say in this nation. The moral onus is on the maoists. Serious apology is due.

  34. When Girija is the PM, then all sorts of worst of worst things happen in Nepal. This stupid old man should have been cremated at Pashupati Aryaghat long ago. What is does is makes his daughter Sujata the MP sidelining all the senior congressi leaders.

  35. The Maoists are certainly not absolutely correct, but you are absolutely wrong. I’m still waiting for a justification of your culture of violence theory. Better yet, Give me an example of a “culture of Non-violence.”

  36. Bice try, but let’s get back to the point. You need not bore us with your knowlege of text book political theory. Just look at what Maoism has historically translated to and answer the following question: “Do you think it’s ok to kill in the name of politics?” It’s as simple as that.

  37. The Maoists (in theory), like your text books, are appealing. The Maoist, in reality, by the methods they use, are absolutely wrong.

    Neil, you have the luxury of living out your leftist fantasies in Nepal. The Nepali people do not have the luxury of being subjects in your elaborate Maoist experiment.

    You are at liberty to keep rambling on with your insignificant, “theoretical” arguments. Why don’t you make yourself useful by taking a few pictures of Maoists cleaning up trash in the Kathmandu valley. See if that turns the tide in favor of your beloved comrades.

  38. The Maoists are not the least bit interested in addressing the concerns of the marginalized. Maybe at the beginning they used this platform to further their agenda but it has become abundantly clear that they are just another incompetent, corrupt political party that is after perks, ministerial and ambassadorial positions. However, as corrupt and incompetent the other political parties were they haven’t created a lunatic vigilante group like the YCL nor have they propagated violence and “gunda giri” like the Maoists. NC cadres, the last I checked, don’t go around harassing and intimidating other political activists.

    Mr. Horning clearly has an agenda of his own being a “Maoist Expert”. The Maoists have turned out to be nothing more than a sham – they have no vision or some grand and noble design to uplift the people. But Neil, you cannot see this for what it is because then you would have just wasted years of your life. Hence you keep justifying and explaining and in the process make yourself look like a fool.

  39. The Maoists are an extremist organization that should never have been allowed to dictate policy, but for the fact that moderates were fighting against another ancient and bankrupt order, the monarchy. Something like the Allies having Stalin on their side.

    That’s not to say the ‘moderates’ are a great lot. They are not. Corrupt, prone to nepotism, it was they who created the circumstances for the Maoist emergence. But anyone who equates them to the Maoists must be with a lot of dead gray cells.

    First of all, the moderates may have had no vision, other than to use political power for their own ends, but the Maoists had a destructive and negative vision. They had ideas that were too radical and extremist for a rational society. We all understand that Nepali society is unequal and unjust. But the Maoist prescription called for lunacy. The Maoists’ cure would kill the patient, or at least leave him a lot worse than before.

  40. can we not waste any more of our precious time responding to losers from the West like Neil– if he was good enough, he would be back home leading some business house, the fact that he has so much time at his hands to to a complete dissection of Nepalese politics says a lot about him.

    We need to focus on the task at hands and the task at present is to condemn the terrorists Maoists led by teacher turned terrorist (TTT) for carrying out this heinous act of bombing Kathmandu. There is no doubt that the CA shy terrorists are behind this act. They have realized that CA is not their cup of tea and are now trying every means to stop the elections from happening. The bombing was the 23rd point on their 22 point precondition. We need to bring these cul[rits out to Tundikhel and do the needful. Pushpa Kamal and CEREMONIAL Baburam better get ready for it.

  41. You don’t have to (nor are you in any position) “refute” anything. The facts are documented for all to see.

    Point us to a serious political theorist who offers a definition of “terrorism” that is delinked from the brand of violent politics the Maoists continue to exploit (in and out of government). Now that would be a feat!

    You think the Maoists represent the aspirations of the marginalized? Why did Upendra Yadav break away from the Maoists? Why did the Tharus break away from the Maoits? Why have the Janajati people formed their own front? Why do marginalized communities inscreasingly feel the need to disassoicate themselves from the Maoists? Because they feel the Maoits adequately represent their individual causes, through the applciation of violence? Is this why?

  42. i expect guys to debate like they really have great balls….but i find some with no balls, fake balls, and hypocritic balls, biased balls…..debate reasonably guys….not like you have just come out from the womb……..

  43. To me the Maoists very had any credibility. They claimed they were fighting for the poor and marginalized but look back at the insurgency and see who suffered the most – it sure as hell weren’t the KTM elites. The Maoists shut down health clinics, schools, blew up bridges etc. in the rural areas and set rural development back by a decade. They killed school teachers and terrorized small business. What a sham of a movement so that now Baburam, Prachanda and Krishna Mahara can parade around KTM in their pajeros the rest of their cadres are stuck in those cantonments eating rotton food.

  44. what a waste of potential……all of you…nothing but blaming each other…no wonder why there will never be a peaceful nepal…….and who is this Neil dai? do any of you wonder who this guy really might be? He might be getting paid to analyze and write few comments here and there….and but actually might be retrieving every bit of info of you all and putting them on CIA, NSA, FBI,USDHS, ATF database…. so, if i were you…i wouldn’t be too harsh on him unless you want to be on list……

  45. This Gidhhe Girija is really hawaldar. First he brought maoist insurgency in his past regime. He tied up with maoist in India just for the power in the name of peace and democracy, although he had resigned in the past for not using army against the maoist. He is now taking every advice from India to safeguard his power, but he doesnot know how long India will trust him once the ethnic parties become stronger in political power. He, as a PM, is responsbile for bringing madhesi andolan against this syndicate rule which is even greater than Janaandolan-2. Now fire igniting to Limbuwan, Khumbuwan and Tamangselo and Tharuwan due to his actions. It clearly seems that these 8 parties will be cleaned-up by these ethnic parties in coming election. The different ethnic groups have already mentioned that they are not giving vote to other ethnic groups in their territory in coming CA election. It is unclear now how his goons are going to survive in politics and how long and who ?

    So Neil, you should keep in mind that maoist insurgency is already failure concept in Nepal. Even the peace and syndicate accord of spaM has become failure now. The ethnic uprising of today is the naked evidence of this. You and I like it or not but this is the reality of today politics.

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