By Dr Pramod Dhakal
The English-educated and Internet savvy Nepalese have started a number of mailing lists that pour emails at a rate that there are not enough hours in the day to read them all. Involved in these groups are some self proclaimed “intelligent” and “educated” cyber-friends who love to edify the self. Although they mostly do superficial and self-serving discussions on the name of the people and “the motherland”, still I go there to get some fodder for the brain when the mind wants a break from usual work. While doing so, I came across some pitiful emails proclaiming a survey about the “uneducated” and “unintelligent” politicians of Nepal. However, despite my strong grievances towards the failed leaders, I found the kind of criticism done by these propagandist friends to be in poor taste. Therefore, I would like to write some words in defense of those politicians and to point out the hollowness of the thoughts of our “intelligent” friends.
Before going to the subject matter, however, I must also tell that I find Nepal’s old political leadership lacking vision and wisdom, predisposed to corruption and ineptitude, attached to power, and holding sway in the parties, and the country, due to a culture of impunity in the parties and in the government. At the same time, it would be unfair to ignore their contributors to the positive developments that have happened from the time of signing the 12 Point Agreement of November 22, 2005 to the formation of interim government of April 1, 2007, which has presented a new opportunity to build democracy, peace and security in Nepal. Therefore, they deserve their fair share of credit along with all the criticisms that they have earned.
Coming back to the topic, the conclusion of the emails under discussion was that “our good brains do not involve in politics/parties”, “Nepalese politicians are in lowest grade in global ranking”, “the majority of politicians are criminals, chor, fataha, thag, daka, murderers, smugglers, and corrupt”, “the rejected brains have been ruling over the cream brains in Nepal, a great reason for failure of the country”, “80% of key political leaders belong to the rejected brains group”, “most TU students are in centre of politics and not students of highly rated +2 and A level private colleges, who rather are abreast in the politics of the First World”, “Girija, Prachanda, Makune are no superb graduates like Tony Blair from Oxford and Bush from Yale”, and so on.
Well, criticisms can be eye openers and forces of positive change if done properly. However, the manner used in these criticisms is neither fair nor constructive but rather indicative of the intellectual bankruptcy of the appraisers. These criticisms are presented with numeric figures as if they were the result of scientific and objective studies, and the authors claim to be non-political, but any thinking person can figure out that they are manufactured for biased and purely political agenda. We all know that doing “politics” was illegal in old Panchayat Raj and Rana Sasan, and their keepers threw political opponents in jail, banned political literature that opposed them, and even executed political leaders as “non-political” acts. Students of government sponsored Swatantra Bidyarthi Mandal were paid and trained to carry out “non-political” activities against those who participated in “politics.” So much for the non-political politics!
However, the most annoying part of it is the labels like “cream brains” versus “rejected brains”, where the appraisers think that they belong to the “cream” category and politicians opposed by them belong to the “rejected”, and thus completely failing to do a fair and balanced assessment of the reality. The ridiculousness reaches its peak when assertions are made that +2 and A level private school graduates and Oxford graduates are intellectually superior to other humans. Further our “intelligent” friends found example like George W Bush to be indicative of Ivy League genius! Have we forgotten how the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq was proved to be true in the UN? Was not it that everyone in the world who questioned that assertion was labeled either brainless or a supporter of a dictatorship?
The most famous leaders of modern times like Churchill, Gandhi, Lenin, Mandela, Mao, Martin Luther King, and Reagan, attended ordinary institutions. Even Albert Einstein, a man noted by Time as Person of the Century, would be a “rejected brain” for the first 30 years of his life if our “cream” friends were to appraise him. The most famous inspirational leaders of all time, like Confucius, Buddha, and Chanakya, did not attend any illustrious universities like Oxford, MIT and Harvard; despite that, top intellectuals around the world admire those thinkers with awe. Qin Shi Huang, one of the most famous rulers in history credited for feats like Great Wall and Terracotta Warriors, was hardly literate and Genghis Khan was an illiterate man raised by a destitute mother. Our Ivy League PhDs are still studying to date to figure out how those men might have built up organizational, technological and visionary capabilities so rarely achieved by anyone else in the history of mankind. Even Nepal’s Maoist movement is worth noting. How did those leaders, once ridiculed by even failed leaders like Deuba, develop and manage such a large and complex organization against all odds with capability to fight an army trained and sponsored by superpowers, and managed by top Generals? It could not have been possible if talent was present only among the elite Nepalese. The feet of our “cream” friends would have shaken if they had to develop and manage a system with a fraction of that difficulty and complexity. The moral of this is that books taught in Oxford and Harvard do not have pre-fabricated solutions to Nepal’s problems; the solution can be found only from within and implemented only by harnessing our own human potential.
Our “cream” friends seem to not question the intellect of Gyanendra or Paras while they are busy blaming every other politician. They are blinded due to biasness and, therefore, cannot see the counter productive role they themselves are playing. Further, Nepal was ruled by virtually illiterate people of Shah and Rana dynasties for two centuries. They ruled without giving anything back to the people, only collecting taxes from the self-reliant people of Nepal who lived off the natural resources that existed in their surroundings. These pathetic rulers kept Nepalese people in complete darkness but, fortunately, did not know how to destroy the resilience of our people. Then, there came an era when our foreign educated PhDs landed in Singha Durbar to engineer Nepalese economy to modernity.
In a short span of 50 years they have made the country economically defunct, environmentally ruined, and reliant upon foreign donation and remittance for feeding its people. Let us have a look on those top brains of Nepal like MBB Shah, Gyanendra Shah, Rishikesh Shah, KI Singh, Tulsi Giri, Prakash Chandra Lohani, Surya Bahadur Thapa, Pashupati Samser Rana, Tanka Prasad Acharya, Subarna Sumser Rana, BP Koirala, Nagendra Prasad Rijal, Kirti Nidhi Bista, and even Ram Saran Mahat. Their talent and education would be among the best of people but they could not find any mathematical magic for the fairness and prosperity of Nepal in all the books written in the world. It would not be an exaggeration to say that their failures are greater than that of the illiterate Ranas. The weakest of all – Padma Sumser – may have earned more touting rights than our Western educated talents! Note how Dr Prakash Chandra Lohani, a Board First student of Nepal, western educated and talented economist became a complete failure. Folks from Nepali Congress think Dr Ram Sharan Mahat is also a “tall” man but his failures are even more so spectacular! Look at the “American-style” corporatization of elementary schools to universities for “Singapore like fast economic progress” and ponder what fed the last 11 years of conflict in Nepal! By the way, it was not fed by the poverty most touted by “experts” but by the blatant injustices inflicted by such policies on poor and non-urban Nepalese. They only added new dimensions of corruptions on top of those already existed during Panchayat Raj and Rana Sasan. If another Board First and exemplary genius like Dr Baburam Bhattarai were to inherit this system of governance and start pleasing our Harvard-loving intellectuals, it is only a guarantee that he will be an utter failure as well. Unless we adopt different political and economic models and modalities that are responsive to Nepal’s natural and human realities, and are manageable by indigenously available human capital, Nepal will not see the light at the end of the tunnel.
However, these talent loving friends are not bleeding for what they call mother Nepal but are attempting to fool us with their self-serving logic. Let us not venture into what they attempt to bring to us for it is better to be poor with intact human dignity and freedom than stable Rana Sasan and Panchayat Raj. These “intellectuals” are worried that the big posts will now be handed over to the party operatives but they are so blind to not figure out that their party-less and bureaucracy-centric vision is thoroughly hollow and bankrupt. Their system is so corrupt that even sandal-wearing politicians become corrupt and start dejecting their own people if they ever enter there. Then again, if our “cream” friends are so superior to the rest of the public-school educated Nepalese, why don’t they come to the fore and lead?
Further, can any western education teach vision and wisdom? They can only produce mechanical brains with some statistical and mathematical abilities to attempt to implement something based on what the books say. But we need different mindset, unbound by books, one that has a vision in the first place and can translate that vision into reality. Only a leader that has experienced the ground realities of everyday people, is empathic to the pain of those people, has risen beyond self, has determination and confidence to lead the masses of people, and has management and organizational capabilities, can ever lead a country to greatness. This is not an easy feat for an everyday talented person but our book-loving friends are too naive to know that. Our Harvard educated PhD and non-PhD friends indeed attempted to build Nepal their way but they have only met failures. Many of them have already left Nepal in frustration and we know that they have no magic to solve the complex problems of Nepal and no persona to lead Nepal.
The challenge of Nepal is in finding a visionary leader who may come from the most humble of beginnings. But unless the system is restructured to make it conducive for new and better leadership to emerge past the old ones, all those potential leaders will die in the womb of Nepal long before they can display their mettle. There is severe need for transparency on how things are done from a household to the nation, from the individual political worker to the party. But today’s reality is that whoever happened to be at a high position will stay there till his or her death, even if the position was obtained by inheritance and not by inherent quality. Once in power, they are able to do anything with impunity as there are no checks and balances. But even if they were to exist, they would be ineffective when systems are too complex for them to be comprehensible to common people. But we have this notion that we could be masters of any complex system if only we had an opportunity to attend Harvard or MIT. But the unfortunate reality of the fact is that these institutions cannot teach any such magic to us.
Another problem to be understood is that our self-serving intellectuals seem to have too much free time, which they spend in bashing others and in writing loads of hollow complaints. When there is nothing better to do, everyone’s pastime naturally becomes petty politics (of course if they were real geniuses as they claim, they would have figured out the solution to the problems a long time ago). Until the day the system of governance is made simplified, resilient, self-sustaining, and self-improving, these problems will remain and the same talented people will use their brain to keep the system corrupt for their personal gain. Only a self-improving system can continuously enhance its capacity to deliver more service through the use of same amount of human resource. However, a system based on “natabad”, “kripabad”, “chakari” and “chaplusi” can never be self-sustaining and self-improving. In a corrupt system, our “intellectual” friends will never serve the “non-intellectual” and ordinary leaders elected by the people even if a fair system of electing the representatives were to be instilled. And, let us leave this topic of self-improving systems for yet another article!
(Pramod Dhakal is a former faculty member of Tribhuvan University and holds a Ph D in electrical engineering. He is Executive Director of Canada Forum for Nepal (www.cffn.ca) and lives in Canada. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org)
21 responses to “Nepali Politics: In Defense of the "Non-intellectual"”
A very nice analysis by Dr. Dhakal. Most of the socalled intellectuals and experts of our country have the habbits of showing ownself superior and dominating others. They don’t know to listen others. Most of them use to give lectures reading 1 or 2 books. Their overall knoledge is based on 1 or 2 books. How could be they intellectuals or expert, where they have only read books of 2 or 3 persons? If someone argues from the books of another one then they have no passion to listen that. They have no habbits to hear critics. I am irritated by the “gufs” of such socalled intellectuals and experts. In Nepal here are hardly any true experts, intellectuals and professional persons in any field.
very nice , amusing article………… after long time i found a great article in this site. thanks to mr dinesh wagle for posting this article and manny thanks to writter dr dhakal.
again i say this is the JHATARO(satire) for comment writters from riscal club, bhairab nath batallion.
i heard case filed in suprim court against those culprits. hope they will get maximum punishment.
I am agree with Utsab. Nice analysis by the writer Mr. Dhakal in this post. The lack of vision and holding the political position infinite time is also a major cause. There must be written words after Constitution Assembly Election that more than 2 times of Prime Minister and Presidential election of Nepal, No one should be repeated.
So that holding power always in the poor country like Nepal has been creating centralizing power in one hand.
Let’s hope …….for another Change through……….chulhae nimto in CA Election
i was reading your article and half way through i got bored. the first para was with some substance, and the second one was covering your hind part and from the third you did all that you condoned in the first.
after reading 2,159 words of this article, my dumb mind couldn’t figure out why PHD and elite and cream etc were dragged into this discussion… aren’t we all looking for a visionary leader, with PHD or sans PHD? and isn’t it a fact that none seem to be in the horizon?
Nepal: Enter US-China, Exit India
Kathmandu: Nepal as a nation-state is undergoing through a difficult time perhaps in its entire checquered political history. Intelligent brains predict that if tactful wisdom does not prevail among the ruling elites on time, the country might become the playing ground for some countries near and far. Albeit, the country has not yet become so, however, the symptoms have begun surfacing. Understandably, Nepal is currently in a state of transition and it is said that during such periods’ foreign forces come into play.
Though the “sphere of influence” of some countries, save India, has yet to take a formal shape, nevertheless, there are indications that Nepal could well become a “strategically” important and significant country for some foreign “powers” in the days ahead. Indeed, the foreign forces will wish to expand their sphere of influence until Nepal comes out of the transitional period. To begin with: India-the big brother. India is such a country which has already concluded that Nepal should remain under its grip and no country on earth should have a say in Nepali affairs other than India. Blessed is India that it has been exploiting political benefits beginning early 1950s from Nepal and thanks to the impotency of successive Nepal’s ruling elites that Indian political influence is all pervasive to the extent that New Delhi decides who should wield power in Nepal. In this way, India would wish that no country sneaks into Nepal under any pretext or the other. If some wished to do so, India’s instant wrath would be there for the one who would wish to come in order to “influence” the Nepali political scene. However, in what form India would exhibit its anger towards that very particular country will have to be watched. The general impression in Nepal is that when India is just in the neighborhood, the country does not need any enemy. The hard reality is that Nepal can’t escape from Indian dictates. A curse for Nepal by all means. Indian establishment has already become wary of the Chinese declaration that they would construct a road to the Everest from their own side. The Indian establishment is worried by the fact that such a road to Everest might threaten its security. High ranking politicians in India have openly claimed that China wants to erode Indian territories despite the irrefutable fact that the world’s highest peak is located on the Sino-Nepalese border instead of being on the Sino-India border. What all these suggest? The Indians are presumably trembling with fear that such a road to Everest by China will pose a threat to its security. Analysts fail to understand as to how the Chinese road to Everest will have its negative impact on the highly notorious and widely condemned Nehruvian doctrine which held that the entire Northern Himalayan range were the frontiers of India to which it is not. Nepal, to recall, long time back dismissed the Indian absurd claim. Some Indian media and leaders of a few political parties have whipped up the “security issue” with an ulterior motive aimed at damaging the China’s prestige and popularity in the comity of nations. Analysts would encourage China to go in for such an adventure come what may. This also means that India would not welcome the presence of China in Nepal to which we will come later. Then comes, United States of America. Analysts presume that America too would wish to increase its political influence in Nepal for obvious political reasons. Some even say that for the US, Nepal is strategically the best country in this part of the world from where it can “eye” over the entire of the South Asian region. But how the US will maneuver the entire South Asian region being in Nepal, the analysts have no answer. Others say, had it not been so why the US would construct a huge embassy in Kathmandu. However, they forget to record that the Indian mission here is not only huge but is staffed by one thousand plus clerks. Add to this the men in disguise working for the notorious RAW-the Indian intelligence network in Nepal which fortunately enjoys the tacit support from a section of the Nepali media as well. To recall, the US and India were in the Nepal “axis” which practically sidelined King Gyanendra from the political scene. Since the axis appears to have lost its relevance, so let’s presume that the said bond in between Delhi and Washington too has become politically redundant. Now if one were to believe the analysts’ presumption that the US would very much wish to be in Nepal to monitor the entire South Asian region, question then comes automatically that how the countries in the neighborhood would take such an American preference which is yet in its embryonic form? Undoubtedly, it would be India first in line to object to such an American preference, if any. India would not want its influence diminished or corroded by any third country’s presence in Nepal. Indian establishment would not mind even to tell the Americans not to eye on Nepal for the latter were a preserve of India and India alone. But the fact is that American influence in this country has gone up in the recent years which have definitely been so at the cost of India and China. Undeniably, America’s political influence could well be visibly seen in Nepal’s political corridors much to the chagrin of both India and China. However, the fact remains fact. Some even predict that Nancy Powell will work hard to show the US presence in Nepal after Ambassador Moriarty leaves Kathmandu by mid-July. Third comes the China factor. China too would now wish to make its presence felt in Nepal which is just but very natural indeed. This desire came to the open in the recent remarks made by the freshly appointed Chinese Ambassador to Nepal. The Chinese envoy even indicated that China would come to the rescue of Nepal if any threat were posed to the host country. He also reminded all and sundry that China would honor the promise made by Marshal Chen Yi as back as in 1961 October. “The statement remains yet valid and that the Chinese policies as regards Nepal have not changed”, is how the Chinese Ambassador explained when asked to comment of the current status of Nepal-China relations. Analysts have been told that the Chinese speak less and work more whereas the Indian propagate more and work less. A close look at his wordings and the meaning underneath does speak so many things unspoken. Clear indications are that China would henceforth very much have a preference to safe guard its political interests in Nepal. This does also mean that China will not let Nepal to be left to the mercy of India and America-by implication. China surely would have become more vigilant and alert upon listening to what the US Ambassador designate Nancy Powell said of the Tibet/Tibetans in her statement at the senate committee hearing a fortnight back. Look what she said, “If confirmed, I will also encourage the government of Nepal to ensure that the rights of all Tibetan refugees, resident in or transiting Nepal, are respected”. This is not all. A cause of real concern for China indeed. To recall, China takes the Tibetan refugees as anti-China fugitives and would wish that the Nepal government handed over those refugees in order to send them back to Tibet. This Nancy statement would further encourage China, presumably, to remain ever vigilant of the possible US moves aimed against Tibet-the China underbelly. Thus all put together, analysts presume the impending formation of three axes in Nepal that will comprise of one country each axis. The Indian axis naturally will be taken care of by the Indians. This axis will try to distance the possible influence of China and that of America. The second axis will be that of America which will prefer to expand its political clout in Nepal by any means that does not amount to interference in the Nepali affairs. The US will in all likelihood exceed its diplomatic limits as the Indians do intermittently. However, chances are brighter that the US may seek needed support from India to neutralize the possible Chinese weight. In the recent years admittedly, the Indian hob-nob with the US has undoubtedly increased. The third axis will comprise of China itself which would prefer to watch the growing American moves and also devise schemes on how to counter such steps. There is yet another possibility of India and China coming closer to keep the US at a distance. The fact is also that China and India do not have that much animosity as they used to have in the early seventies. Economic diplomacy has replaced verbal war of words in between the two countries with which Nepal shares common borders
. Last but not the least, there is yet another hidden axis which does not come to notice either for lack of adequate knowledge or deliberately. This axis comprises of the entire European countries in the EU plus some Scandinavian nations which have gone deep into the grass roots of the prevailing Nepali society through the NGOs and INGOs funded by the countries falling in this category. These NGOs and INGOs are more or less like a parallel government in Nepal. Now it remains to be seen how these axes come into existence and how they maneuver politics in Nepal to safeguard their respective political interests.
Where did Dr. Pramod Dhakal get his PhD from? From the tone of his article, obviously not Harvard, Yale, or another high ranking institution. High school also probably not from a top rated school in KTM.
Sour grapes, anyone?
i you are fundamentally wrong!!
Here are some comments about your example of people who got ordinary education.
Churchill – Almost lost his country to Germans; hadnt it been for US and Russia
Gandhi – Went University College London, top 5 in UK!
Lenin – great mind? alteast not to me!! KILLED THOUSANDS!
Mandela – University of Fort Hare is one of the best university in South Africa
Mao – are you crazy? JUST LOOK AT Janglees at home!
Martin Luther King – was ordinary no because he was dumb but he was black
Reagan – Do you think he would have been a president if he was a “ordinary” and a POOR?
Talk about uncontrolled rant!! Wow.
This is your typical academic discourse that neither proves or invalidates any given point. All it does is repeat exactly what it criticizes – the self-adulating nature of elite Nepalis abroad, of which the writer Dhakal is one.
He is annoyed by too many e-mails but what’s his point? It’s a free world, no one is forcing him to read them. There’s a “delete” button and a “junk mail” button. He is welcome to use either.
Just too funny. Something someone wrote (I am guessing on the topic of Bahunists) has irritated Dhakal and so, we have the pleasure of him doing literary acrobats on this blog instead of sending mass e-mails.
Dhakal by blasted by a lot of people over the email regarding his article. He is currently on a refugee/assylum visa in Canada. What a dastardly barking dodo.
it is easy to point out the problems. i am sure anyone and everyone in this blog knows the problems as good as every other true nepali. it is even easier to have a say so on how it would be better, or give a piece of their mind on what would be best for nepal, but interestingly the hard part is to do it and this is where most of the people take a step back.
Tis dhakal chap is blabbering about the problems and he himself is in canada when he should have been in nepal sorting out the problems. he seems to had been a teacher or something in nepal. if he had only been in ktm helping out students with their academics, it would at least count as a step forward.
honestly speaking, there are always exceptions, but in a vague sense, better schools produce better people.
you do find examples of people who indeed went to a ordinary school but ended up doing something extra-ordinary, but it just happens once in a blue moon.
oh ya abt mao, he went to the best university of china, tsinghua university. at least that much i know about the names that he had given about those people going to ordinary school and being world leaders.
he is talking about qing shi huang(the first emperor of unified china) confusions and buddha, who were here some 2000+ years ago and talking about then not going to oxford and stuff. well if he didnt know, oxford was founded only in 12th century. what were they supposed to do, build a time machine and go get the admission there?
besides, in their time, they were great, i cant say they would be the same now. thus it is useless arguing abt their education background.
Dr. Dhakal has a point though! Why the so called intellectuals are not getting into politics in Nepal? Why is it not a preferred career option for them, except for a very few?
You fall victim to your own argument; while snikering the intellectual, you have put yourself under the spotlight of intellectual “snobbishness.” Now, how are YOU any different than THEM (pesudo-intellectuals) on the premise that you are also simply proposing your idea/analysis without any data to support your claim as the other party (that you denigrate in this article) usually do?
Isn’t that the whole excercise of education? Ask many questions, propound few of yours, let them float in the market, let other disect them, get the feedbacks so on and so forth. If you are so prompt to label them “elite”, “cream”, “intellectuals”, you should aslo understand that it’s how the things work in “academic” ampitheater.
I understand your sentiment, but i don’t understand your logic. As you’ve put forth your analysis (in this article) with such a passion, so can anyone else. And the onus falls on the reader to dissent with constructive critisism, if he/she doesn’t align with the thougt/politics/ideology beign propounded. YOU JUST CAN’T DISMISS THEM AS mere “cream”, “elite” and “intellectual,” that’s a lazy man approach.
I enjoyed reading your article, just a thought, it would have given more seriousness to your writing had you provided us with the REFERECES to other writings that you mention here of “cream” people. So, that we could’ve read them too, and made some judgement on our part, rather than reading your verdict on them.
You should’ve know better with that PHD (piled higher and deeper) degree, that how importnat it’s to provide with the REFERENCES, while you mention/analyse someone else’s writing.
YEP, PHD doesn’t make anyone WISER, sir!
foot note to my previous comment:
i’ve seen many Nepali PHD holders submitting their writings to UWB (though, i fly by sometime across this site) and other many on print or on line forums. it really makes me happy to see my Nepali brothers/sisters getting the highest of education degree that there is to get. but, at the same time, makes me miserably sad (often) when they can’t even follow the basic 101 template of ‘Writing.’ I can’t remember all the papers i read by Nepali PHD holders, the one fresh in my mind is the ABOVE one.
Do I have to remind a person, who has published (hopefully) numerous papers by now, that References are must, when you mention someone else in your writings?
Dr Dhakal – your article does have a point but it was very very boring and nothing revealing. I mean did you take the podium and write so long just to complain that our intellectuals are useless? I mean who doesnt know that.
Well written Dr. Dhakal, but I am wondering if you were one of those you accused of leaving Singha Durbar becasue of the failed-ideas on Development. I would be ineterested to hear your own story for leaving Nepal. The problem of Nepal is caste-centric politics and bureaucrats who belong to the ‘intellectual’ group you adamantly rejected, yet being part of it, and that notion of ‘indigenouse knowledge’ as a framework for development has become a form of intellectual entertainment. If that were not the case, why were the indigenouse Tamangs, Rai, Limbus, Gurungs, Sherpas, Magar, Tharu, etc. systematically prevented and discouraged from getting education until recently?
Looks like a case of ‘intellectualism against intellectuals’ … Perhaps cynicism has got better of Dr. Dhakal
Kudos to Karke_ko_ baa for pointing out that Dr. Dahal falls victim to his own argument. While I applaud Dr. Dahal for taking the time to express his view, I failed to understand what he is trying to say. For me Dr. Dahal offers no new insights in his argument. He states that Buddha and Confucius was top intellectual despite Harvard, MIT and Oxford, but don’t we know that such institutions did not exist at their time and there were advance civilizations, artists, and philosophers thousand of years before the formation of North Americas. It’s easy to provide analysis, and set high goal and superior standards, but its lot difficult to abide by the principles of good intentions. Perhaps murky analysis should be expected from an electrical engineer to social politics of Nepal.
This is the reason they shoot teachers.
How are you building a post conflict democracy by patching up, covering up.
Spain made peace and has a stupid nasty opposition, but teachers can teach and journalists can do their normal job. By all means suggest the people not to think, talk or ever go to school.
good job, well done
“Where did Dr. Pramod Dhakal get his PhD from? From the tone of his article, obviously not Harvard, Yale, or another high ranks institution. High school also probably not from a top rated school in KTM”
Aforesaid statement is wrong. Not necessarily PhD from Harvard, Yale …is best compared to medium level schools in the US and high school in Nepal. It seems that you are trying to discriminate on the basis of legal status in Canada and Nepal as well. Your wordings are rude. Here, positive thinking is lacking. I am not a PhD holder but my intrinsic mind knocked to express my view here.