Category Archives: government

#Nepal: Madhesi groups have the highest representation in government jobs

The dominant narrative promoted by a section of ethno-centric activists and intellectuals is that Nepali civil service is dominated by Hill Bahun/Kshetri and that the Madhesis are excluded and underrepresented.

This is the mixture of lies and half truth. A comprehensive research considering caste, ethnic and gender dimensions of Nepali society shows a different picture. The Nepal Social Inclusion Survey 2012 (NSIS) ranks different caste groups of Nepal on the basis of their representation in government services in proportion to the size of their population.

[Added on 21st December for clarity: the research states, “on the basis of percent of households with access to government jobs”. See Note below for more]

[Additional Note on 22nd December: The second picture below is a ranking based on representation compared to the size of population. The table is from the same study. The first chart is based on percent of households.]

Three high-caste Madhesi groups are at the top of this list.

Population groups by access to government jobs. Madhesi groups are ranked higher than others.
Population groups by access to government jobs. Madhesi groups are ranked higher than others.

[Related: The findings of the report were also published in Nepali in Setopati.निजामती सेवामा सबैभन्दा बढी प्रतिनिधित्व राजपूत, कायस्थ र तराई ब्राम्हण]


Top 10 ethnic groups over-represented in Nepali civil service when compared to their share of population. Madhesi groups rank at the top. Picture source: Setopati [Picture added on 22nd December].

The study reveals that some Madhesi communities: Rajput, Kayastha and Tarai Bahun have more representation in Government jobs than their share of population and are among the top seven most represented population groups of Nepal. Among the top seven ethnic communities, only two are Hill (Pahadi) communities. The remaining are Madhesi groups.

“The Madhesi B/C [Bahun/Kshetri] has the highest percentage (29.1%) in government jobs, which is followed by the Newar (26.3%), Hill Chhetri (21.5%) and Hill Brahmin (15.8%).” The findings of the multidimensional study state, “Dalits, including Madhesi and other caste groups, are well below the average.”

The study very specifically points out that Halkhor and Dom, two other Madhesi groups (ranked at positions 1 and 3), are mostly involved in public services of a low level (cleaning jobs). This suggests that other groups at the top level, including the Madhesi groups like Kayastha, Terai Brahmin, and Rajput do not share such characteristic.

It is important to remember that Madhesi (representing 20% of Nepal’s population) is not a single homogeneous population group. There are huge disparities within different Madhesi communities and their levels of progress. Several Madhesi groups (like Dalits) are among the most backward and disadvantaged in Nepal. At the same time, several other Madhesi groups (like Madhesi Brahmins, Kayasthas, Rajputs) are ahead of all other ethnic groups in Nepal in terms of Human Development Index (HDI), education, wealth, access to government services and opportunities.

[Related: Debunking Dr. Karan Sinsh’s misinformed comments on Nepal in the Indian Parliament]

Top ten ethnic groups in Nepal based on access to government jobs. Three Madhesi groups (Kayastha, Terai Brahman and Rajput are ahead of Hill groups like Chhetri (ranked 10) and Hill Brahman (ranked 14).
Top ten ethnic groups in Nepal based on access to government jobs. Three Madhesi groups (Kayastha, Terai Brahman and Rajput are ahead of Hill groups like Chhetri (ranked 10) and Hill Brahman (ranked 14).

The study reports that Hill Dalits, which is a broad group, are in the lowest position and Muslims only slightly above them.

NSIS shows that there is no domination of a single caste in Nepali civil service. Out of 98 individual caste groups covered by the survey, 20 castes have more representation in civil service than their shares of population.

According to the study, “Government jobs” covers employment by the government at both the national and local levels, according to the survey. “At the local level, it covers jobs in VDCs, municipalities, DDCs and other government line agencies. However, the level of job is not specified, therefore, including all levels from sweepers to officers.”

It is important to understand whether there is inclusion in government employment, because it is one of the pertinent institutions for governance, the survey states. The study was carried out by Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology of Tribhuvan University and published in March 2014.  It was funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) in Nepal through Social Inclusion Research Fund (SIRF)/SNV. The list of people who led the study can be seen in the picture below.

The team behing the research
The team behing the research


Note (Added 21st Dec 2015):

The study cited in this post is based on the number of households having access to government jobs. Our initial post missed this detail. All questions regarding the study and methodology should be directed to the concerned research teams. For more clarity, we are adding some statistics of some ethnic groups below.

According to the Population Census of Nepal 2011, average household sizes for some ethnic groups are:
Kayastha 5.1, Madhesi Brahman 5.1, Rajput 4.1, Thakuri 4.9, Newar 4.5, Chhetree 4.7, Hill Brahmin 4.2.

The Human Development Index (HDI) values (published by UNDP) for some ethnic groups are: Hill Brahman 0.557, Hill Chhetri 0.507, Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri (includes Rajput and Kayastha) 0.536, Madhesi Other Castes 0.460, Newar 0.565. The chart is included below for reference.

Screen Shot 2015-12-21 at 10.19.01
Human Development Index (HDI) values by major caste and ethnic groups of Nepal (2011, UNDP). Madhesi Brahmin, Rajput and Kayastha are included as “Madhesi Brahman/Chhetri”.

Election Government or Elected One?

Everything is changing. People are taking their comedians seriously and the politicians as a joke. -Will Rogers

By Siromani Dhungana

I don’t support the idea of a government that bureaucrats or technocrats lead. Do you support a military-led government led? If not there is no reason you will support a government led by bureaucrats? The only difference between military rule and present Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi-led government is that Regmi is not wearing combat uniform.

It was no surprise that Regmi, in a recent meeting with medical professionals, said that he was appointed by foreign powers (international community, he said) despite his unwillingness and that Nepal had no power at the moment therefore there was no need for a separation of power (between executive and judiciary). Regmi has clearly hinted that he is not accountable to Nepali people but to a clique of four party leaders and ‘international community’. Continue reading Election Government or Elected One?

Cooking Gas Price Hike: Maoists Take People for a Ride

It seems ‘people’ is one of the most sellable words for Nepali communists. So what about war? Nothing more than a business strategy for the hammer and sickle lovers. ‘Proletariat‘ are their clients whom they can easily sell their product, that is, ‘false hope of prosperity’. Activities of UCPN (Maoist) in Nepal are glaring evidences.

By Siromani Dhungana

In yet another controversial decision, the Maoist-led government has decided to jack up price of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) by Rs 630 on a cylinder which will certainly hit the consumers’ lifestyle who already has been facing rampant inflation.

I do not mean that the government should not hike the price of LPG. But, my point here is the price hike by Rs 630 at once this time is irrational and illogical. It is to mention here that the government has apparently failed to rein state-owned fuel supplier Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) and has put consumers at the receiving end to mask failure of corrupt government officials and NOC management. Continue reading Cooking Gas Price Hike: Maoists Take People for a Ride

Press Council Nepal: From a Watchdog to the Maoist Lapdog

Awadesh Kumar Yadav
Awadesh Kumar Yadav

By Siromani Dhungana

The present Press Council Act in Nepal need to be revisited, restructured and reformed to ensure the independence of the council and to establish it as a true ‘watchdog mechanism’.

After the appointment of new chairman at Press Council Nepal (PCN), the need of reforming the existing legal provision has further garnered its relevancy.

In what appears to be a controversial move of the Government of Nepal, it appointed former Supreme Court Justice Awadhesh Kumar Yadav as the Chairman of Press Council Nepal on January 25, 2013.

Reportedly, Yadav as the apex court Justice had issued an order to prevent the prosecution of a war-era criminal case against then Maoist lawmaker Keshab Rai. Continue reading Press Council Nepal: From a Watchdog to the Maoist Lapdog

For an “Austere” Prime Minister, Far Too Many (and Costly) Helicopter Rides

But that’s the contradictory and hypocritical nature of Baburam Bhattarai. Can the Mustang-rider PM reveal the source of his party’s income to pay for his choppers fare?

By Siromani Dhungana

And the earth is round! Russian Mi-17 and French AS332 Super Puma helicopters were used by the then governments to fight against the decade-long Maoist insurgency (1996-2006) The story has taken a twist now and rebellion-turned-Prime Minister Dr Baburam Bhattarai has been one of the frequent users of these flying machines.

Hiring these choppers cost from Rs 0.42 million to more than Rs 0.44 million for an hour, but that does not seem to deter our Mustang-rider Bhattarai from hiring helicopters for campaigning in favor of his party UCPN Maoist.

PM Bhattarai has spent Rs 19.09 million in chopper after assuming charge of the Prime Minister’s office in August 29‚ 2011, reports Kantipur Television.

He has chartered AS332 Super Puma and MI-17 helicopters of Nepal Army Air Wing for 23 times since August 2011. Dr Bhattarai, however, has cleared the chopper fair only once.

In September 2011, PM Bhattarai had said that his party would bear the cost of chartered flights that he takes to attend programs organized by the party. Speaking before the then State Affairs Committee of the parliament, the PM said the state would not have to bear the financial burden of his visits to party programs. Continue reading For an “Austere” Prime Minister, Far Too Many (and Costly) Helicopter Rides

Policies and Programmes of a Maoist Led Govt

It’s a nice essay but nothing substantial, said chief opposition party NC’s leader Sher Bahadur deuba about the government’s program and policies document.

With an aim to take the peace process to a logical end, the Maoist-led government today publicized its policies and programmes. Brining out new constitution on time (within two years) is hight on the list of commitments. President Ram Baran Yadav read out the policies and programmes for the fiscal year 2065/66 at the Constituent Assembly (CA). The 84-point document promises to write the statute in coordination with all political parties within the specified time. “The government’s principal responsibility is to assist in taking the peace process to a logical end, turning the socio-economic transformation towards a progressive direction and writing the federal democratic constitution, as per the people’s aspirations, within specified time,” said the document. Continue reading Policies and Programmes of a Maoist Led Govt

Is New Nepal Heading Toward [Maoist] People’s Republic?

By Conflict Study Center

On August 21, 2008, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), CPN (UML) and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum (MJF) agreed on the Common Minimum Program (CMP), Code of Conduct (CoC), Modus Operandi of the Government (MOG) and the formation of a Political Coordination Committee (PCC). The documents were signed by Prime Minister and President of the CPN (Maoist) Puspa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda), UML General Secretary Jhala Nath Khanal, and Forum chair Upendra Yadav.

The 50-point CMP is divided into: (i) Nationalism, (ii) Federal Democratic Republic, (iii) Peace and Security, (iv) Relief and Reconstruction, and (v) Socio-Economic Transformation. The excerpts of CPMs are:

(i) Nationalism concerning to unity and promotion

• Nepal’s sovereignty, national unity, independence and integrity shall be preserved, giving national importance to self-respect.
• National security, foreign policy, utilization of water resources, and mobilization of foreign assistance shall be based on Nepal’s sovereignty, independence, and welfare. Unequal treaties and agreements shall be reviewed.
• The foreign policy regarding neighbors shall be based on national interest, the UN Charter, non-alignment and the theory of Panchasheel.
• Financial assistance shall be taken from friendly forces, the UN and donor communities in the course of Nepal’s economic and livelihood development.
• National integrity and balance foreign policy shall be mobilized to internationalize and resolve the Bhutanese refugee situation. Continue reading Is New Nepal Heading Toward [Maoist] People’s Republic?