Category Archives: Announcements

How Kathmandu Elites Capture Nepal’s Progressive and Political Agenda

By Ashesh
UWB Guest Blog

The elite group of Nepal includes people from different ethnic groups and various places. The richest people in Nepal are still from Madhesi, Newar, Thakali and Thakuri groups, apart from Bahun-Chhetri. Likewise , based on access to land, government services and education, elites of different ethnic groups are far ahead of an average Nepali person.

Some handful elite families from various ethnic groups and castes were privileged to study in high quality English-medium schools and renowned educational institutions abroad. They benefited the most from the Rana and Panchayat regimes and continued to do so in democratic times. Today, they are the most influential class in Kathmandu with deep political and financial interests. In the past couple of decades, they have coined a jargon “hill upper caste ruling elites” to pose as advocate for marginalized people as they saw movements targeted against them.

The “progressive elites” have become successful in creating an illusion among foreigners that these poor and rural folks are the ‘demonic ruling elites’ of Nepal and they, the real elites who benefited the most from the Nepali state since centuries, are the agents of change and progress.

Read: Madhesi Groups Have the Highest Representation in Government Jobs

This coinage has successfully helped them shield themselves from the rights-based movements by creating a “new” enemy.  In their narrative, the oppressors are the ‘hill upper caste ruling elites’ while oppressed are the marginalized ethnic, regional communities. And they ‘courageously’ side with the marginalized ones to attack the ‘hill upper caste ruling elites’, euphemism for the poor and rural Bahuns and Chhetris.

This is a letter to all these Kathmandu elites to remind them who they are and that there are many out there who don’t believe the narrative that they have been selling.

Dear Kathmandu elites,

  • Given that you and your families are part of feudal ruling elite class, you may think all Bahun-Chhetri enjoyed similar privilege. But hard facts like HDI figures and other research show there are many poor Bahun-Chhetri people. People of diverse communities have enjoyed more access and privilege from the Nepali state.

Continue reading How Kathmandu Elites Capture Nepal’s Progressive and Political Agenda

#IndiaBlockadesNepal: A serious humanitarian crisis Looms over Nepal: WFP

WFP Release: Nepal: Extreme Hardship Expected To Worsen As Food Prices Soar

KATHMANDU – Major disruptions in food and fuel imports across its southern border with India have severely affected Nepal’s supplies and caused a worrying increase in food prices, says the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP).

A border blockade to protest Nepal’s new constitution began in September. Trade has now slowed to a trickle in the landlocked country, causing a food and fuel shortage that is in its third month. With Nepal heavily dependent on imports, especially from India, severe shortages are now being felt in local markets. The cost of some basic food staples, such as cooking oil, rice, lentils, sugar and salt have soared in recent weeks as supplies dwindle.

“If trade remains restricted and food prices continue to rise, a serious humanitarian crisis will be hard to avoid,” said David Kaatrud, WFP Regional Director for Asia and the Pacific.

“People are struggling to feed their families as the cost of food rises beyond their grasp. Coming so soon after the recent earthquake, this crisis could severely test people’s ability to cope, and may lead to an increase in malnutrition.”

On average, the prices of lentils, pulses and cooking oil have increased by more than 30 percent since August and more than 50 percent since last year. In remote areas, including parts of the country worst hit by the 25 April earthquake and aftershocks, the price of food commodities has increased even further, doubling in some cases. For example, in Gorkha, a community close to the earthquake epicenter, a 25 kg sack of rice now costs 5,000 Nepali Rupees (US$46.80) – up from 2,500 Rupees (US$23.40) before the blockade. The price of cooking oil and sugar has also doubled in the town.

At the same time, the price of fuel has sky rocketed across the country. The cost of refilling a cylinder of cooking gas has increased from 1,500 Nepali rupees (US$14.00) before the blockade to between 8,000 and 11,000 rupees (US$75 and US$102) today, an increase of as much as 630 percent.

“WFP urges all sides to once again allow the free flow of food items across the border to ensure that Nepalis, especially those who struggle on a day-to-day basis to feed their families, are not the ones who bear the burden of this protracted political stand-off,” said Kaatrud.

A quarter of people in Nepal live on less than US$1.25* a day, and on average spend 60 percent of their income on food. This means that most have only a limited capacity to cope with shocks such as disasters and soaring food prices.

Last month, WFP warned that the fuel shortage caused by the border blockages was hampering earthquake relief efforts. There have been severe delays in WFP efforts to provide food assistance to more than 224,000 earthquake-affected people. WFP has only been able to deliver one-third of food supplies earmarked for distribution by the end of the year. The delivery of non-food items, such as medicine and shelter material for winter, has also been severely affected by the dispute.

#NepalConstitution Guarantees Basic Rights that We Esteem in #Europe: German Ambassador

The constitution which has been adopted by almost 90 % of the deputies is a big success and a proof that after years of conflict and struggle, the way to a new and modern society is paved. The constitution comprises all basic rights which we in Europe esteem essential for a free and democratic society. Nepal can be proud of this document which symbolizes a cornerstone in its development.

How do you see the current situation in Nepal following the promulgation of new constitution?

Photo: Spotlight news magazine

First of all allow me to congratulate Nepal for the promulgation of its new constitution. The constitution which has been adopted by almost 90 % of the deputies is a big success and a proof that after years of conflict and struggle, the way to a new and modern society is paved. The constitution comprises all basic rights which we in Europe esteem essential for a free and democratic society. Nepal can be proud of this document which symbolizes a cornerstone in its development. Unfortunately, there seems to be a deficit in communicating its substance to the people. In my eyes, there is a lot of ignorance and misunderstanding about some of its articles. Moreover, as someone who has studied law, I can assure you that in the years to come, many of the clauses will be reviewed and clearly defined by the constitutional bench of the Supreme Court. There will be, as well, amendments of the constitution in future according to the needs of the society. It needs responsible political leadership to communicate this to the minds of the people instead of allowing the spread of rumors that create an atmosphere of public confusion.

As an Ambassador to this country I can assure you I would be happy if more would be done to inform the broader public about rights and duties of the new constitution and I appeal all relevant parties, after three months of different forms of protests, to reach a political compromise and bring an end to the ongoing horrible crisis.

People have already suffered too much, particularly all those who were affected by the heavy earthquake and are still fully dependent on support from the outside world. The present situation with its strangulation of people in need, children, elderly people and those living under harsh conditions in the mountains is showing signs of a violation of human rights.

With the promulgation of the new constitution, there is unrest in Madhes with border blockade; the supply of essential commodities is negatively affected, which is developing into a major humanitarian crisis. How do you look at it?

From my point of view, there is no doubt that the international community should raise its voice to prevent a major humanitarian crisis which will go beyond the suffering of the people after the heavy earthquakes in April/May. The borders to India must be opened as soon as possible to allow in medical supplies and shelters needs for the people living under critical conditions. By opening the borders, the transport sector of the country which has almost come to a complete stop because of the shortage of fuel, should start activities again and secure distribution of all essential goods to the people in need. It cannot be accepted that suffering people are held hostage in the name of a future design of the country. I’m very worried about the health and wellbeing of the most vulnerable people of Nepal.

As Federal Republic of Germany has been supporting institution building at Municipal and VDC level for last many years, do you have any plans to support developing provincial institutions in the present context?

I really hope that the ongoing supply crisis will end soon and leaders will thereafter focus more on reconstruction of the country and implementation of its constitution. Both efforts will show if Nepal will be capable of proceeding to a brighter future and safeguard stability. Institutions will have to be strengthened; there should be more delegation of decision-making processes. Nepal needs a service-oriented administration; wide-spread practice of immunity for misbehavior on all levels of the society should end. This requires a strong and independent justice system.

Regarding your question on a possible support to the development of provincial institutions, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that a federal system in its true sense needs a sound foundation of well-functioning municipalities. It is the municipalities to which citizens have the closest and direct contact with administrative structures. It is the municipalities from which citizens expect the best services for their daily needs such as access to water, waste and waste water treatment, health care, school facilities and much more. These services can be replaced neither by provincial nor by federal authorities. It is therefore obvious that first of all administrative structures on municipality level must be strengthened so that they can operate to everybody’s satisfaction.

In my eyes, a federal system finds its justification only if it leads to an improvement of services to citizens. The functions of provinces are focusing more on rules and regulations of regional matters. There is less direct contact of provincial authorities with citizens, same as for federal institutions. Therefore I’m convinced that the process of implementing federalism into the Nepalese environment could only and should start with all kinds of support for the municipalities. Since Germany and Nepal have a longstanding cooperation in support of institution building at municipal and VDC level, there is every reason to look into continuing this support.

As the new constitution demands new institutions and new legal system for its implementation, what do you suggest?

In discussions a team of German experts recently had with representatives of Nepalese authorities involved in the process of implementation of the new constitution, the focus was on three fields of possible support from our side: support of the legislative process, training of judicial staff and advisory services for establishing well-functioning administrative structures. The German IRZ, Institute for Judicial Cooperation, will be in charge of defining future projects in shaping new federal structures. There might be as well support for training facilities for trainers of administrative personnel. For the time being we have not yet concluded specific projects of cooperation but we are preparing them in the near future.

One of the problems in Nepal is the weak institutions at all levels. How is the German experience in this, from which Nepal can benefit?

Weak institutions are an obstacle for the development of a country. Progress and success of a society very much depends on qualified staff on all levels of the administration, on a set-up of rules and regulations understood and respected by the majority of people and a clearly defined mechanism for self-rule and availability of financial resources on municipal level. These are some of the most important sectors for stabilizing a country bottom-up.

Federal Republic of Germany has been providing much needed support to earthquake victims, how do you support in the post reconstruction phase of build back better?

The German Government has supported Nepal from the very beginning after the earthquake. In addition to 5 Million Euro humanitarian aid, amounts of 30 Million Euro for recovery and rehabilitation- on top of our ongoing bilateral programs- have been granted. Our rehabilitation support will mainly focus on three districts: Nuwakot, Dhading and Rasuwa and support primarily the health and energy sectors. We will, for example, ensure the reconstruction of several district hospitals and construct more than 40 health posts. We have also agreed to rehabilitate the central Load Dispatch Centre in Kathmandu and will work on the repair and extension of electrify transmission lines in quake-hit areas. For the past six months, we have also supported shelter and immediate needs of affected communities. Now it is important to move from recovery towards long-term rehabilitation.

As the Reconstruction Authority is yet to establish, has it made any difference in implementing the projects?

German Development Cooperation focuses its recovery and rehabilitation programs on those sectors in which we have been engaged in for a long time, such as health and energy. Hence, we have been fortunate to benefit from already-existing partnerships and networks. This has allowed us to deliver faster than others and to effectively support the people in need immediately after the earthquakes happened. However, the lack of an effective coordination mechanism and the lack of GoN guidelines for the reconstruction process severely limit the impact of what the international support could achieve. It is urgent that the authorities in Nepal step up efforts to put in place the institutional framework for a coordinated, accountable and effective reconstruction process. Otherwise, “Build Back Better” will remain only a slogan and the lessons learned from the recent disaster might quickly be forgotten.


Is Germany providing additional support to Nepal along with regular programs?

The commitments made for recovery and rehabilitation after the earthquakes came on top of our ongoing programs and will be implemented mainly in three of the earthquake-affected districts as I have already stated. At the same time, it is important for us to maintain our existing projects in the energy, health and economic development sectors with a geographical focus on the Mid and Far West.

What are the priority areas for German support in the context when Nepal has been facing a lot of challenges like poverty, food insecurity, climate change and disasters?

With the current priorities of Nepal-German Development Cooperation (health, renewable energy / energy efficiency and economic development and trade), we hope to contribute to addressing these problems and challenges that are most pressing for Nepal’s development. The ultimate goal of all our programs is poverty reduction and a more sustainable and inclusive socio-economic development of the country. Let me take the example of our long-standing support for renewable energies and energy efficiency in Nepal: progress in these areas translates both into positive social and economic impacts, while at the same time also addressing the issue of climate change.

(Courtesy: Keshab Poudel, Editor, Spotlight magazine)



Know Your Country(#Nepal) And about Its Diverse 125 Social & Ethnic Groups

Vol 1: Population Dynamics:…/Population%20Monograph%20of%20Nepal%202…
Vol 2: Social Demography:…/Popula…/Population%20Monograph%20V02.pdf
Vol 3: Economic Demography:…/Popula…/Population%20Monograph%20V03.pdf

(Originally posted as facebook status by Dr Swarnim Wagle)

#Nepal: A Big NO to Caste, Ethnicity, Religion-based Federalism

Mitra Pariyar

The Nepalese Government MUST NOT accept the type of caste-, ethnicity- or region-based federalism – despite the continued protests by Madhesis with direct support from the Hindu extremist Modi Government of India. Such a long Indian blockade has not been easy, but we should not sow the seeds for further ethnic/caste violence in the future by accepting the demand of a few parties representing the south/South.

धन्यवाद माओवादी! तिमीले सुरु गरेको जातिवादी राजनीति र हिंशाले कालान्तरमा देशै टुक्रने पो हो कि भन्ने खतरा बढेर गएको छ। तात्कालिन सत्तास्वार्थका निम्ती सबै जातिलाई राज्य दिन्छु भन्दै हिंड्ने र अनेक मोर्चा निर्माण गर्ने गर्दा आज सिंगो मधेस र देशको स्थिती यहाँ अाइपुग्यो। र यो सारा चिज समिक्षा गर्ने, मुल्यांकन गर्ने र आवश्यक परे क्षमायाचना गर्ने हिम्मत यिनमा छ? के कुनै वाद वा विचारको नाममा देशै टुक्र्याउन पाईन्छ? अझ यसको जिम्मेवार बौद्दिक नेता झन नयाँँ शक्ति भनेर सर्लक्क पाखा लागेका छन र अझै जातीय द्वन्द फैलाउने उद्देश्य राखेका छन्। के नेपाल भट्टराईको प्रयोगशाला र मानव बधशाला बनिरहने हो? भट्टराईहरूले जति नेपालमा अरु कुनै पनि तानाशाहले हत्या हिंशा मच्चाएको रिकर्ड छैन, राष्ट्रको संपत्ति ध्वस्त पारेको छैन। र यिनीहरूले यति हत्या र यातनाको योजना बनाएर नेपालीलाई सखाफ परेका छन् कि आजसम्म उनीहरू पश्चिमा मुलुक भ्रमण गर्न डरले सकिरहेका छैनन्। तैपनि अझै कतिपय यिनीहरूले नै देश बनाउछन भन्ने कल्पना गर्दछन्! नेपालीको आँखा कहिले उघ्रन्छ?

(This article was originally posted as facebook status by Mr Mitra Pariyar. We have reproduced here with his permission.)

तेलको भाउ वढ्दा समिति गठन गर्ने संसद चिकित्सा क्षेत्रमा भएको भ्रष्टाचारवारे मौन वस्न मिल्दैन: गगन थापा

गगन थापा

केहि दिनमा हामी संविधानको अन्तिम रुप दिदैछौं । संविधानका अक्षर मृत हुन्छन । संविधानका मृत अक्षरलाई कर्मले जीवन्त वनाउने हो । कर्म वदल्न निश्चित पद्दति चाहिन्छ । हामीले संविधानमा स्वास्थ्यको अधिकार नागरिकको मौलिक हकको रुपमा लेख्दै आएका छौं । यसलाई जीवन्त वनाउन निश्चित पद्दति चाहिन्छ नै । डा. गोविन्द के.सी.को अनसन त्यहि पद्दति निर्माणका लागि हो । उहाँले उठाउनुभएको विषय उहाँको नीजि विषय होईन न त अहिले चिकित्सा क्षेत्रमा देखिएका विकृतिका विरुद्ध मात्र हो । अतः यस्ता सार्वजनिक सरोकारका विषय संसदको चासोको विषय बन्नुपर्छ ।

गत चैत्र २१ गते डा. गोविन्द के.सी.को पाँचौ पटकको १२ दिन लामो आमरण अनशन तोड्ने क्रममा सरकारले स्वास्थ्य-शिक्षा क्षेत्रमा देखिएका विकृतिको अन्त्यका लागि माथेमा कार्यदलको प्रतिवेदनको कार्यन्वयन गर्ने प्रतिवद्धता सहित ११ वुँदे सम्झौता गरेको थियो । Continue reading तेलको भाउ वढ्दा समिति गठन गर्ने संसद चिकित्सा क्षेत्रमा भएको भ्रष्टाचारवारे मौन वस्न मिल्दैन: गगन थापा

मुलुकको भविष्य निर्णायक मोडमा !

प्रा. डा. मदन कुमार दाहाल

तराईमा सम्पूर्ण यातायात अवरूद्ध छ, जन-जीवन अत्यन्त कष्टप्रद र भयावह रहेको छ। सम्पूर्ण नेपालमा एक दिन बन्द-हडताल हुंदा अनुमानित कुल रू. ३ अर्व वरावरको आर्थिक क्षति हुन्छ।

11754255_867772586647069_1720834341450081552_nनेपालको संविधान, २०७२ जारी हुने पूर्व सन्ध्यामा केही दिन देखि संघीयताको नाउंमा जातीय र क्षेत्रीय राज्यको माग गर्दै तराईमा निरन्तर प्रदर्शन, भिडन्त, वन्द-हडताल, अशान्ती, हत्या-हिंशा र कर्फ्युको लहर चलेको छ। तराईमा सम्पूर्ण यातायात अवरूद्ध छ, जन-जीवन अत्यन्त कष्टप्रद र भयावह रहेको छ। सम्पूर्ण नेपालमा एक दिन बन्द-हडताल हुंदा अनुमानित कुल रू. ३ अर्व वरावरको आर्थिक क्षति हुन्छ। हालै सरकारको तर्फवाट दोश्रो पटक आन्दोलनकारीहरूसंग वार्ताको लागि पत्राचार गरिएको छ। Continue reading मुलुकको भविष्य निर्णायक मोडमा !

आतंकबादको बचाव जत्तिको प्रतिगामी कदम अरु हुनै सक्दैन

कैलाली घटनापछि नेपाली समाजको ठुलो तप्कामा निराशा पैदा भएको छ । माओवादी विद्रोहपछि हिंसा सकियो भन्ने विश्वास गरेका धेरैले कैलाली टिकापुरमा आन्दोलनकारीले ७ प्रहरी र एक दुधे बालक मारेको रात निन्द्रा नपरेको अभिव्यक्ति समाजिक सञ्जालमा व्यक्त गरे। त्यो स्वभाविक थियो ।

पहिलो, आतंकले सामान्य मानिसलाई पिडा दिन्छ । सन् २०१४ मा सात समुन्द्र पारी इस्लामिक स्टेटले एकजना अमेरिकी पत्रकारको घाँटी रेटी हत्या गर्दा सामाजिक सञ्जालमा नेपालकै सज्जनहरुले समेत मानवता विरोधी अपराधको खुलेर विरोध गरेका थिए । त्यति टाढाको घटनाले हाम्रो मनहरु दुखेको थियो भने आफ्नै भुमिमा त्यो भन्दा क्रुर, पाशविक र अमानवीय घटना हुँदा निन्द्रा नपर्नु स्वभाविक हो ।

दोस्रो, आतंकले आम मानिसमा निराशा पैदा गर्छ। आतंकको निरन्तरताले आर्थिक संबृद्धिको मार्ग बन्द गर्छ । यसले गर्दा नागरिकहरु आफ्नै भविष्यसुनिश्चित नभएको पिरलोका कारण अस्थिर मनोभाव पैदा गराउँछ । यो मनोविज्ञान देश विकासको लागि समेत घातक हुनपुग्छ । क्षमता भएकाहरु विदेशिने धेरै कारण मध्येको एक यही हो ।

तर कैलाली नरसंहारका यी पक्षहरु भन्दा डरलाग्दो अर्को पक्ष छ । त्यो हो हिंसा र आतंकको राजनीतिककरण । मानिसलाई भाला र बन्चरो हानेर मार्ने कामलाई समेत नेपालको सचेत तप्काले खुलेर आतंकबाद हो भन्न सकेन । धेरैले यसलाई थारु अधिकारको आन्दोलनको आवरणमा ढाकछोप गर्ने प्रयास गरे । कैलाली घटनाजस्तो मानव नरसंहारको समेत ˝राजनीतिक समाधान”को माग गरियो । आतंकबादको राजनीतिककरणको यो डरलाग्दो मागले नेपाली समाजलाई दीर्घकालसम्म सताईरहनेछ । Continue reading आतंकबादको बचाव जत्तिको प्रतिगामी कदम अरु हुनै सक्दैन

मान्छे जिउँदै जलाउने, दुई बर्षको बच्चालाई मार्ने आन्दोलन होईन, राजनीतिक विषय होईन, अक्षम्य अपराध हो: गगन थापा

समझदारी हुँदै गर्दा संघर्षको क्रममा भएका मानवताविरोधी जघन्य अपराधमा संलग्नन चाहे राज्यपक्षको होस चाहे विद्रोही\आन्दोलनकारी होस कसैले पनि उन्मुक्ति पाउनु हुँदैन । विगतमा हामीले समझदारी गर्‍यौं राम्रो गर्‍यौं तर मानवता विरुद्धका जघन्य अपराध गर्नेलाई माफि दियौं । गम्भिर गल्ति गर्‍यौं । जसको परिणाम हामी आज भोग्दै छौं

सिमाङ्कनको राजनीतिक हल खोज, अपराधिलाई दण्डित गर

संविधानसभाले संविधान वनाउन लागेको यो क्षणमा जननायक वी.पी. कोइरालाको संकल्पलाई समम्झिरहेको छु जसले ६८ बर्ष अगाडि वि.सं २००४ सालमा भन्नुभएको थियो-‘ जनताले ठाँउ ठाँउवाट आफ्ना प्रतिनिधिहरु चुनेर एउटा सभा खडा हुनेछ । यस सभाको काम विधान वनाउनु हुनेछ । जनताको इच्छा कुन तवरले शासनमा सर्वोपरि हुन्छ भन्ने त्यस सभाले निधो गर्नेछ र त्यस सभाकै निर्णय अनुसार शासनप्रणाली पनि निर्धारण हुनेछ ।’ आज हामी उहाँको यो सपनालाई साकार पार्दैछौं ।

संविधासभामा मस्यौदा समितवाट प्रस्तुत विधेयकलाई जस्ताको तस्तै संविधानमा अनुवाद गर्ने हो र नेपालभन्दा वाहिर रहेको संविधानको कुनै विद्यार्थीलाई अध्ययन गर भनेर दिने हो भने स्वभाविक रुपमा उसले यो लोकतान्त्रिक संविधान हो भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकाल्छ । तर जव स्वतन्त्रता, समानता र आम संचारमा भएको प्रतिवन्धात्मक बाक्यांश हेर्छ अनि उसको आफ्नै निष्कर्षमा प्रश्न गर्छ । त्यसैले यसलाई सच्याउनुपर्छ ।

धर्म, भाषाको सम्वन्धमा लेखिएका धारा पढ्छ, अनि आर्थिक, सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक अधिकारका प्रावधानहरू जव पढ्छ, प्रत्येक नागरिकको प्रगति, प्रतिष्ठा र पहिचानको लागि समर्पित धाराहरू हेर्दै गर्दा निश्चय पनि भन्नेछ यो संविधनले नेपालको विविधतालाई सम्मिलन होईन संवोधन गरेको छ । तर जव दलित समुदाय, अपाङ्गता, महिला अनि अल्पसंख्यकहरूको पहुँच र प्रतिनिधित्वको व्यवस्थामा भएको अनुदारतालाइ पढ्छ अनि फेरी उसको निष्कर्षमा आफै प्रश्न उठाउँछ । त्यसैले यसलाई सच्याउनुपर्छ । Continue reading मान्छे जिउँदै जलाउने, दुई बर्षको बच्चालाई मार्ने आन्दोलन होईन, राजनीतिक विषय होईन, अक्षम्य अपराध हो: गगन थापा

Nepal Earthquake 2015: Damages and losses in the Water and Sanitation sector

Pragya Lamsal

Pragya Lamsal

10481582_10102185393510681_3431946467229818161_nOn Saturday, 25 April 2015 at 11:56 local time, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake as recorded by Nepal’s National Seismological Centre (NSC), struck Barpak, about 76 km northwest of Kathmandu. Government records said that there are over 8,790 casualties and 22,300 injuries. Further, the government has estimated that the lives of eight million people, almost one-third of the population of Nepal, have been impacted by these earthquakes.

National Planning Commission, an advisory body for formulating development plans and policies in Nepal, released Nepal Earthquake 2015: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Executive summary on Friday (June 19, 2015). Among others, the summary has calculated major damages and losses in Water and Sanitation sector.

It is estimated that the total value of disaster effects (damages and losses) in water and sanitation sector caused by the earthquakes is NPR 11,379 million (NPR 10,506 million of losses and NPR 873 million of damages)


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