Maoist Madness: Recruiting Children In Army

Images of Maoist child soldiers and recruitment from around Nepal UWB Photo Blog

Maoist recruit children

Sixteen-year-old Sameer Rai was recruited on Thursday (Nov 16) by the Maoist Peoples’ Liberation Army. A resident of Dharan (Ward No 16), Sameer says that he left school to “serve the country” by joining the PLA. Pics by Raju Ghising

Maoist recruit children

The CPN Maoist has recruited 24 youths including a girl from Dharan.

Maoist recruit children

Parents are not happy with the Maoist recruitment. Bimala Devi Rai cries after the Maoist forcefully recruited her son Hira Bahadur Rai.

Maoist recruit children

Armed Maoist woman guerilla heading toward the cantonment site in Palpa on Thursday (Nov. 16) from Sardikhola of Kaski. Maoist gueirlla are being gathered in Palpa cantonment from around the region. Pic by Prem Nepali

Maoist recruit children

A school girl (left, front) is accompanied by a Maoist PLA guerilla. PLA guerillas of fourth division office force are taking the school girl to Palpa’s Devinagar cantonment site for recruitment. Pic by Iswori Neupane

Maoist recruit children

A woman guerilla with a garland of bullets belonging to Maoist PLA’s fourth division force. Many guerillas left Pokhara on Thursday for Palpa. Pic by Iswori Neupane

Maoist recruit children

PLA guerillas in Humin VDC heading for Chirtung of Devinagar VDC on Thursday (Nov 16). Daily up to 200 guerillas who were until recently working in various labor organizations are heading toward the cantonment site in Chirtung, Palpa. A tripartite team of Nepal government, UN and the Maoist inspected the main cantonment site but there is no preparation of establishing the camp in Chirtung. Some guerillas complained about the situation as they faced shortage of cooking materials. Pic by Madhav Aryal

Maoist recruit children

Parade in a Village: School children take part in a parade on Thursday (Nov. 16) in a field in Pedari village, 16-kilometers north-west of Nepalgunj, after they were recruited by the Maoist PLA. They are being trained by armed Maoist soldiers. These children were forced to say that they “arrived here because we wanted to be artist”. But villagers say that Maoists assured them of salary and other benefits. Pics by Janak Nepal

Maoist recruit children

Sixteen-year-old Ramesh BK of Pedari village Pedari in the queue for the training after he was recruited by the Maoist. He was studying in 7th grade before being recruited eight days ago. Pic by Janak Nepal

Maoist recruit children

Sixteen-year-old Manisha Khadka of Khadgwar, Khoalpur. She was studying in 8th grade before being recruited by the Maoist PLA eight days ago. She said, apparently under pressure from her recruiters, that she wanted to be an artist.

Maoist recruit children

A Maoist guerilla in duty in the compound of Lumbini Buddhist University in Lumbini, the birth place of Buddha. Maoist entered inside the compound reently, cleaned it and established a camp here. The place was lacking care from the time very beginning. This Maoist cadre with a khukuri in his hand was questioning people who wanted to enter inside the compound. Pic by Madhav Dhungana

ramjeet paswan

Ramjeet Paswan of Inawarsira-7, Bara pleads in front of human rights activists, media persons and local residents for his release from Maoist captivity on Thursday in Dumarwana of Bara district. On right is his brother. Maoists had detained him and his neighbor Kanhai Lal Sah 10 days ago for their alleged involvement in ‘criminal activities’ in the name of Maoist. Maoists had planed to released both today in the presence of rights activist. But after Paswan rejected all the allegations in front of other people, Maoists didn’t release him. They, however, released Sah. Maoists have said that they will keep Pawan in their custody for a few days. Pic by Shankar Acharya

ganesh kc

Ganesh KC of Rangkhani-7, Baglung who joined the Maoist party at the age of 12. His whereabouts is unknown. In the photo below, his father Bimal KC requests rights activist on Thursday (Nov. 16) to find his status. Pic by Lal Prasad Sharma

ganesh kc father





44 responses to “Maoist Madness: Recruiting Children In Army”

  1. Kirat Avatar

    So what is the Govt. doing about? Busy preparing the peace pact? This is turning into a farce!

  2. pontiff Avatar

    Call on civil society members. But why tripping? This was expected. The champions of human rights are good at playing up their left stinking balls- see they act so elitist, dealing only with major issues such as their place in assembly or being demagogue extra ordinary. Its beneath them to cry for child solder’s right. God help this mothers- oh! I wish their days of reckoning would come soon.

  3. Guyfromktm Avatar

    I think we need to thank UWB for such graphic reporting of what that terrorists are resorting to.

    However, does anyone here believe that the politicians of this very corrupt (the special courts of Nepal might think otherwise) politicians will ever raise this issue when they are talking to the Maoists? Will Girija call teacher Pushpa Kamal that he will not sign the accord on the 21st if te terrorist gorups continue their tactics of luring students into their PLA? Will dollar kheti expert civil society groups make this the most improtant agenda on Sunday? Will the so called Republic Nepal Cultural program over the weekend even mention this exploitation of children and expose the dirty tricks of the terrorist groups? And what is the worthless home minister of this country doing about this all, why haven’t we heard any statement from the government yet?

    Like someone said, this is all turning into the big farce and this is a perfect example of why these terrorist groups can never be trusted. If this is happening in front of our eyes, then how are we to believe any of the rhetorics that the two feudal brahmins Pushpa Kamal and Baburam keep repeating?

  4. Neil Horning Avatar

    Hmm… This is the same division that I interviewed. I just left the country so I guess I can’t go up there and see what’s going on.

    While I wouldn’t say that the Maoists are not doing what this report says. You should all keep in mind that ANY parent will say that their child is forced.

    The opurtunity to join the winning side without having to face any risk is a rather large incentive. Probably even larger than the monetary incentive. Having Maoist contacts may be an important thing in the near future. That’s how the country runs after all.

  5. Kirat Avatar

    Neil Horning-you are so full of hogwash. Why don’t you just admit that it is a breach of the spirit of the peace accord to go on a recruitment drive whether forced or otherwise.

  6. [icd]kuire Avatar


    Give it a rest buddy. You sound like your [icd] lady comrades!

    We are supposed to take your word for it over a Nepali journalist, who can understand the language etc. better than you? I think yoiur defence foir the maoists is getting suspicious at the least!

    Besides we have not heard any of your reportings on the maoists except for glorification.

  7. Guyfromktm Avatar

    You are missing point while trying to patronize this blog. The point is, whether it is froced or not, whether the Maoists are the winning side or not and whether joining them in itself is an incentive or not, the fact is that the Maoists are RECRUITING! Can you not understand the issue? The terrorist groups declared that they have 35,000 people, said they will put the PLA in cantonement and NOW they are RECRUITING. What part of this don’t you get?

  8. Foreigner in Nepal Avatar
    Foreigner in Nepal

    Shameless what is happening now!!!!!
    Reading just the news on the net and also in Pokhara they abdict many people. Hotels are on the verge of closure because the Maos taken away his workers unless a few days ago they forced hotesl to promise informing a employee three monts before sacking him. Waht they doing now? Not even one hour before sacking they abduct them.

    Read this!!!
    Maoists took nearly two hundred people including school children and workers working at various hotels and restaurants of Pokhara towards Palpa for recruiting them into the Maoist army.

    According to a Pokhara based journalist, Maoists took them towards Palpa on Thursday, one day after Maoists took many people to recruit them into their army.

    Some of the hotels at Lake Side of Pokhara are on the verge of closure after Maoists took workers working there for the recruitment process.

    Earlier, the Maoists had put the condition that hotel entrepreneurs should give three months notice to workers if they wanted to sack them, but they have now taken the workers without even consulting the entrepreneurs

    The Government has to urge the Maoist to stop inmediatly this and leave the Nepali people in peace and espacially the children.
    If not, the Government has to stop further negociacions with the Maoist.

    Mr. Dina Nath Sharma of the Maoist talks team was saying that all this is falls but in the whole country is prove that he is lying. How can we trust a talks team like this.

  9. ba$tards Avatar

    At this rate the maoists are asking for a civil war. Everyone should arm themselves.

  10. dialogue Avatar

    wake up everybody this was going on all the time. I have children from Dharan, we have been stuck at Biratnagar airport.
    Come on guys do we live on same planet earth? The government is doing what it can do. Really it is not productive NOW to criticize them, considering child abduction at this stage if anyone believes in anything, even the law of Karma produce peace and stop suffering of children, parents and grandparents. Stop also extorting money from schools, mistreating women and so on. It is Africa alright and it has always been. keep on talking government this that. What are you doing

  11. what if Avatar
    what if

    Instead of commenting in this photos why Dont we TAKE OUT protest against MAOIST. Enough is enough
    I urged Mr wagle take this step we will support you.

  12. Bhudai Pundit Avatar
    Bhudai Pundit

    Firstly someone please slap Neil Horning.

    Kirat, I see even you are getting frustrated. I agree this is just becoming ridiculous. I read that Girija had to publicly warn the Maoist to stop this. I think perhaps a rift is forming between the leadership and the lower level cadres. On one had they seem to trying to show everyone they have changed etc. but on the other they seemed to be doing this.
    Anyway where is that Maobadhi… to think I even believed him for a sec.

  13. what if Avatar
    what if

    After a decade of conflict and more than 13,000 deaths, Pushpa Kamal Dahal, better known as Chairman Prachanda, leader of the Communist Party of Nepal and commander of arguably the most successful modern-day anti-feudal rebellion, has signaled an apparently abrupt ideological change of course. In an interview with Thomas Bell of the Telegraph, Prachanda declared that he and his party “are not fighting for socialism.” Interpreted in the article as a move to the “center,” the statement went conspicuously further. While reiterating his party’s opposition to feudalism, the communist leader claimed to be “fighting for a capitalist mode of production,” with the aim “to give more profit to the capitalists and industrialists” [1].

    Prachanda’s pro-industrialist comments mark a serious departure from his traditional anti-bourgeois, anti-imperialist stance. In an interview in February he made this position clear, emphasizing that his party’s “maximum goals” were socialism and communism, the “goals of all those accepting Marxism, Leninism and Maoism as philosophical and ideological assumptions.” Although admitting in the interview that, given “the international power balance and the overall economic, political and social realities of the country,” his party couldn’t attain those goals “at the moment” and thus “should be flexible,” no mention was made at the time of supporting profit-driven capitalist ambitions [2]. Later asked if the party, in its recent shift of policy, had not deviated from its communist roots, spokesperson for the rebel movement Krishna Bahadur Mahara made a distinction, clarifying that “It is not deviation but development” [3].

  14. what if Avatar
    what if

    Aint they all the bastard. On magsir 5 when prachanda comes to sign the peace deal we should droop the bomb there. All the top leader will wipe out then only our contry could move in direction of development.

  15. bridohi Avatar

    Implementation is the key to PEACE!

    The SPA & the Maoists can write as many & perfect looking documents, but, without proper implementation it is just a farce. The government & the SPA have given too much leeway to the Maoists. The Peace Agreement is based on mutual understanding & trust amongst the leaders rather than a concrete contractual legal basis. There are no remedies for breach of Agreement. The ONLY remedy is back to WAR or continuation of the status quo. The concept of Peace at any cost leads to stagnation.

    A document based on faith rather than contractual principles is hollow & hard to implement. UN was only given an observer role for weapons management, but, has no role as a refree for the UN in case there are issues that needs to resolved. The government & SPA cries foul, but, who is going to enforce the Agreement?

    Recruitment of students & children by the Maobadis to send to the cantonments to fill in the numbers is a joke. This is a serious breach of the Code of Conduct as real PLA is being replaced by a rag tag army. So where is the real PLA? Why are they hiding? Why are they not in the cantonments?

    Why is the civil society quiet? What has happened to the Nepali intelligentsia? Where are the so called human rights activists & NGOs? They seem to have have lost their voice–very conveniently–all of sudden… What a coincidence…

  16. lavesh Avatar

    Maobadi haru sarkar hundai chan ……. sarkar chalauna ….paisa chaincha …… baccha sena ko lagi ….. kasaila paisa dan gardaina….
    ….ya ta bachha chodnu parcha ya ta sarkar…
    ….pragati sene badhaer hundaina…pragati…
    rojgari badher huncha…PRACHANDA PATHma sayad
    BAL-HAYTA pap nai hola ….mero bichar ma maobadi ko ladai SWARAJ ko lagi thiyo na ki SWASASAN ko lagi…Stalin..Hitlar..ra PRACHANDA ma farak ta hola?

  17. Nepali Keti Avatar
    Nepali Keti

    Just when you thought things might actually be better in Nepal, Maobadis are showing their true color again. Will Maoists ever get it? Will they ever work to for the betterment of Nepal? Impossible to trust them and they are only making it harder.
    They are sitting for peace deal in one hand and doing exactly the opposite in another. They are just thugs, no politicians. They are still hell bent on ruining whatever is left.
    Look at the pictures of young children. Maoists are cowards. They know they can’t win over people if people are given a choice.
    They know if things are fair and peaceful in Nepal, they are never going to win any elections. So they will make mess of whatever… whenever…. Beware of them!

  18. Bhudai Pundit Avatar
    Bhudai Pundit

    I think it is also high time that Girija and SPA grow some balls and stand up to the Maoists! I don’t understand why they are so timid.

  19. gorkhaligurung Avatar

    ??????????? : ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?

    [icd] ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?????; ????? ??? ?? [?????????] ???? ???? ??? ?

    ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ????? ??
    ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??
    ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??
    ???? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????, ?????????, ?????,
    ? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??

  20. GolD Avatar

    First time you gave the light to the people

  21. manan Avatar

    You can never trust the Maoists, but are these guys under unified command? It seems to me, and I may be wrong, that one faction wants peace and the other faction war. Or at least, one faction wants peace more than the other does.

    Lets not rush to conclusions. I don’t think Prachanda and Baburam Bhattarai came to Kathmandu all the way to go back to the forests again.

    But UWB must be commended for this report.

  22. manan Avatar

    Troubling pictures though. Its definitely not time to let our guard down.

  23. Move Avatar

    Now its time to act. Everyone is so good on writing comment, doenst seem like anyone of you doing anything to stop maosit brutuality. Writing your lovely, touching words in this blog not going to help. Actually you need to unite together to stand and stop maoist action.
    our enemy is just maoist leader and leader of civil society especially that pahari, dixit and pandey. Maoist cadres are just following the order which their leader instructed.
    If you just wipe out maist leader and leader of civil society, half of the problem of this nation will be solved.

  24. Prof. Pyare Lall Avatar
    Prof. Pyare Lall

    My sentiments are like that of Gurkhaligurung. Bec ause prachande is no good for the country and the people. King is a super dog. Only SPa xan do some thing but it seems that they also don’t have any guts to stand against prachanda. It is because they are corrupt people. They looted the country openly for 12 years. They don’t have any moral strength. But only positive point is that they are democratic. That’s why they are least harmful among the three.But can the SPA protect us ? If the maoists continue like this, the elctions to CA can really happen ? That is the 64 million dollar question in Nepal.Can anyone shed light on this ? What will happen from hare to May 2007 ? Nobody can tell. This is what annoys the people like me.

  25. Prof. Pyare Lall Avatar
    Prof. Pyare Lall

    This is what Prachande said in New Delhi.It is an irony that Prachande is talking about democracy and masses whareas he is killing the poorest of the poor in Nepal.Prachande and democracy can not go together. If Prachande goes to poll, he will get less than 15 percent votes.Prachande and gang Muradabad !!!

    Democracy a farce in South Asia: Prachanda
    New Delhi, November 18, 2006

    “I have lived my life in jungle, now I will lead my life in light” – Maoist leader Prachanda.

    Stressing on the importance of democracy in the present day scenario, Nepal’s firebrand Maoist leader Prachanda on Saturday said the political battle in the 21st century will be fought over democracy, which at present is in deep crisis.

    “Democracy has been reduced to an exportable commodity. The political battle in the 21st century will be fought over democracy and whoever practices the “right” democracy will rule the world, Prachanda alias Pushpa Kamal Dahal said while addressing the second session on Day 2 of fourth Hindustan Times Leadership Summit in the Capital.

    He said that parliamentary democracy has been reduced to a “farce in South Asia” as the basic tenets like liberty and equality have been ignored.

    The bespectacled 51-year-old former school teacher stressed that “real democracy” must take care of the masses.

    “Democracy has been a forbidden fruit for a majority. It has been nectar for people in power. The challenge of our time is to transform democracy into nectar for the oppressed. Masses are the ultimate creator of history, so democracy should take care of the people.”

    Speaking on the situation in Nepal, which is bracing itself up for elections in June 2007, the Maoist leader said that efforts have been on to abolish a monarchical democracy and work towards a socialist set up.

    “The recent pact between the government and the Maoists is to create a democratic republic to put an end to the eleven-year-long evil in the country,” Prachanda remarked.

    The Maoists and an alliance of political parties reached a landmark deal recently that would see the rebels enter government in return for confining their army and weapons to camps monitored by the United Nations.

    Maoists said they were prepared to work within a democratic system, but have called for an end to the monarchy in the troubled Himalayan country.

    The new pact states the monarchy’s fate would be decided at a meeting after elections to a special body to rewrite Nepal’s Constitution, to be staged next year.

  26. noname Avatar

    What can SPA do when it is the one that created the mess and is responsible for developing and nursing it?

  27. common sense Avatar
    common sense

    Mr. Horning…

    Let’s assume that we take your word for it. Let’s say all these parents were actually being overly paranoid and hallucinating that their kids were forced and recruited. Would you still say it was correct to stop their education on behalf of “serving their country” and joining the Maoist army?? Would you say it was okay for them to quit education for bloodshed??

    The entire point is to develop the country. When children in today’s times are made to quit school for such purposes, then do you really see the country going anywhere?? Personally, I was under the impression that Nepal was actually heading somewhere. But is it really?? Like all the other political parties, monarchy and whatever body the Nepalese people have had to suffer under, the Maoists don’t seem any different to me. Recruiting children… Now what next??

    I really can’t believe people can blindly support and justify such actions!! Disgraceful!!

  28. Bhudai Pundit Avatar
    Bhudai Pundit

    Hey noname or should I call you Tulsi? I read your post in the other thread. As usual it was devoid of any substance or argument. Well get this into your skull. The SPA is the only middle ground and they are the only way to move forward. Deal with that!

    Common Sense don’t waste you time explaining to Mr. Horning.

  29. raj Avatar

    I draw some conclusions?

    First, monarchy in Nepal is in last foot. Even Shahi Nepali Congress or NP(democratic) is trying to call itself republicanist.

    Second, Maoists are trying to pretend to be what they declared to be but they were not. They had no more than 10000 fighting and non-fighting cadres and they boasted them to be 35000. They are trying to hoard people now by hook or by crook to reach that number.

    Third, NCP(uml)is going through a fear psychosis. It thinks NP and Maoists are conspiring. Makune is behaving just as before they had entered into ‘Adha sachchieko pratigaman ko sarkar’

    Fourth, Nepali Congress is virtically divided in two groups, ceremonial Rajabadi and republicanists.

    Any other symptoms?

  30. konfused Avatar

    this is so confusing, king was better, to say the least…predictable to some extent. Whereas these ppl are eccentric, primal. still hopin on though. fingers crossed…

  31. common sense Avatar
    common sense

    And I forgot to add… Maoist camps in the holy place of Lord Buddha?? Doesn’t that anger anyone?? A place like Lumbini… Buddha’s land!! The entire point is peace – especially there. And the kid carrying a khukuri and guarding?? Really… This is what you call the coming of peace??

  32. Neutral Avatar

    Obviously, it is easy to attack. Firstly, the Maoist method of recruiting child soldiers is deplorable. But the Maoist leader is correct in his analysis of democracy in its current state. Poverty and illiteracy still plagues the people. And while the Maoist solution isn’t what I agree with, something needs to be done. I think our good blogger would make more of an impact by showing the greater problem. And not by picking sides.

  33. Nepaliby heart Avatar
    Nepaliby heart

    Hi all my Nepali brothers and sisters,
    Its good to see so many democratic supporters and maoists haters. They have sowed the seed of hatred by themselves and if we are not aware NOW and show our hatred in some way or other, then our future is not very far from the Cambodians. No! lets not learn the hard way, lets not suffer while the whole world is moving forward towards progress. We DO NOT MAOISTS and their lies ! King was no good but neither will Prachanda… We will vow our support to the political parties, the moderates and our true voice. If the leaders are corrupt now, so what, we are all there for the future !!! But lets stick to the right path ! PROUD TO BE NEPALI ( proud.nepali@hotmail

  34. scoop Avatar

    For all you people who think blaming the Indians is a “royalist” game. Here’s one from the horses mouth:

    “Prachanda claims he was offered ‘assistance’ by ISI:
    In an interesting revelation, Maoist chairman Prachanda has said that his party was offered ‘assistance’ in the form of arms and money in the past.”

    Of course he probably went on to say he did not accept it, in the same lines as Khum Bahadur did not take bribes!!!! Draw your own conclusiions, but the next time it would suite people better to no just discard serious issues as being “royalist”.

  35. pontiff Avatar

    The perception is that most of the Nepali are already in seize mentality i.e., they do not speak what is not seen right or perception that if they actually speak their mind then there is good chance of persecution. I am one of them. In reading newspapers and reports I distinctly get this, does anyone? Even when there is a direct attack on industry or an organization or an individual the rebuttal tone is quite different, almost hapless and subservient. So the process of submission to the power-that-be (Maoist) has already started. SPA is in the same mode- can’t do a thing even when Gross human right violation is occruing under their nose and a rebel is dictating terms and condtion, time for discussion and agenda. Prachande speaks of economic revolution and we all know where that is headed- so guys give it a rest, days of semons and discussions may be at end. One rule will dictate us all.

  36. Sagarmatha Avatar

    Tap.. Tap…

    Our dear civil society and human right organizations, where are you????Shame on you…

  37. scoop Avatar

    Prachanda was talking to the Indian press about following a socialist democratic path. I think he is full of bull crap. His party practices nothing close to what socialism is, and even the ideals are way off. He is just saying it to appease the Indians, who one can argue tries to follow a social democratic structure. When asked while pushing for his leftist republican front and trying to bring the Congress into it as well, then who would form the oppositiuon as a strong oppostition is a key part to democracy, his reply – the royalists. But hang on Prachanda, if you are so dead certain that there will a republic, then there is no point of royalists at all, so who is the opposition?

  38. maobadi Avatar

    watch prachanda giving lecture in hindustan times online.

    if the link doesn’t work, go to and see it.

  39. Prof. Pyare Lall Avatar
    Prof. Pyare Lall

    When I read the today’s news about the abductions of the school children by Maoists, I thought Koirala and Gang are Napunksaks in front of Maoists.What they are watching ? Ghanta herera baseko ? They can at least threaten that peace deal may not work with Maoists if they continue to abduct school children like this. Napunksak haru satta mohale matra ayeka jasta chhan.

  40. sl Avatar


    I am watching and watching and watching. He is full of crap. Telling the Indians one thing and doing something else. This guy takes U-turns in his lecture like nobody else. And yes they are exactly that lectures. I doubt the Indians buy any of it.

  41. Bhudai Pundit Avatar
    Bhudai Pundit

    Frankly I am not even interested what Prachanda has to say. What the hell is the point of listening to him uh? He is not even in control of his militias nor does it seem like he has any say/power in dictating the Maoists bahavior. Talk talk talk is not fooling anyone. To think that I was so optimistic!

  42. Sagarmatha Avatar

    I read the lecture of Prachanda and found useless. The socialist democracy, what does it mean in this 21st century. Nothing but just fooling the people. If true democracy can handle all these things as imagined and fooled by the Prachanda then why we need socialist democracy? This vague word is nothing but just a gimic words for popularity in politics. He was the one who was against the Indian policy toward Nepal by saying (Samrajyabad) but he is taking U turn for his survival by thanking India. Anyway he is clever, isn’t he?

  43. Hemant Avatar

    What a fantastic blog ! very informative site. Pay a visit to this site for overseas job vacancy from Nepal.
    Employment agency in Nepal

  44. Dear Pramod Avatar
    Dear Pramod

    Read this after many year of publishment

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