Leaders agree on number of Maoist guerillas to be integrated
KATHMANDU, NOV 01 – The peace process that was started five years ago in 2006 is likely to witness its logical conclusion. The meeting of the top brass leaders of the major political parties—Nepali Congress, CPN-UML, UCPN (Maoist) and the Samyukta Loktantrik Madhesi Morcha—on Tuesday agreed on contentious issues of the peace process.
UML leader Bhim Rawal announced the deal amid a press conference organised at the PM’s residence.
The leaders have agreed to integrate 6,500 former Maoist combatants into the Nepal Army in an individual basis, Rawal informed. Likewise, the rehabilitation package has been agreed upon Rs. 600,000 to Rs. 900,000 as per the rank of the combatants.
Maoist Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal, NC President Sushil Koirala, UML Chairman Jhala Nath Khanal and Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar as SLMM’s representative signed on the “peace deal” at Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai’s official residence in Baluwatar.
Meanwhile, Maoist Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal held a talk with his deputy Mohan Baidya—leader of the party’s hardliner faction—so as to take him into confidence.
The background: how they bargained
This is a significant progress in the peace process since the former rebels signed a peace agreement with the government in 2006. Tasks ahead: re-grouping the Maoist combatants, integrate some in a new agency under Nepal army and send the rest to home with some money.
Baidya unhappy, America happy (below)
Notwithstanding the reservations from the party’s hard-line faction, the UCPN (Maoist) has handed over the keys of at least two containers of weapons- in Chulachuli of Ilam and Shaktikhor of Chitwan- to the Special Committee for Supervision, Integration and Rehabilitation of the Maoist combatants. The Special Committee then handed over the key to the monitoring committee under it. But the Maoist party is yet to hand over the keys of other weapons containers in, for example, Talband, Kailali. The guerrillas here reportedly said that they hadn’t received formal letter from their higher-ups regarding the handing over of the keys to the Special Committee. The Committee is a government agency that is chaired by the Prime Minister and has representatives from Maoist and other political parties. Continue reading
1. The Party decides to end dual security to its leaders (removing Maoist PLA guerillas from some Maoist leaders’ security details. These leaders will continue to receive security from the government police/army)
2. Party hardliners are not happy with the Party decision. They table note of dissent.
3. The Party convenes a meeting where PLA guerillas/commanders are present. PLA men tell leaders to get unified- endorsing the Party’s decision and giving a blow to the hardline faction led by Mohan Baidya.
Here are events detailed in chronological order: (today’s report at the end)
JUN 01 – The United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on Wednesday (1 June) unilaterally decided to end the two-layer security being provided to its leaders–a key demand of the main oppossition, Nepali Congress (NC)–amid opposition from the party’s hardliners. A meeting of the party’s office bearers also decided to bring vehicles being used by Maoist leaders–most of them stolen ones–within the legal ambit through proper registration. The NC had given the Maoists until Friday (3 June) to bring an end to the system where the former rebels get an inner layer of security from PLA men and the outter layer from the state security forces. Over 100 PLA combatants have been deployed for the security of Maoist leaders. There are 50 combatants for the security of Chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal alone. Continue reading
There would be prohibition for conducting political training to the Maoist army personnel inside or outside the cantonments.
The Special Committee overseeing the Maoist combatants on Thursday (yesterday) endorsed the directive related to the supervision, command and control, and code of conduct to be enforced on the Maoist army personnel living at the UN monitored cantonments.
The approval of the document marks a “significant step” for bringing the former rebel soldiers still living under the chain of command of the Maoist party under the government. The six-party Special Committee has also agreed to institute a 12-member secretariat body to control the combatants and their cantonments.
“With today’s decision, the combatants have formally come under the control of the government,” said Nepali Congress member in the Special Committee Ram Sharan Mahat. “They would be practically functioning under the government’s instruction after the special committee secretariat works on full fledged.”
Maoist representative in the committee Barsha Man Pun said the combatants have “in principle” come under the government after Thursday’s decision. “After making necessary arrangements, formal programmes will be organised inside the cantonments to announce that they are under the special committee,” said Pun. “The appropriate date of announcement would be fixed on the basis of political consensus.” Continue reading
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By Bishnu Pathak and Devendra Uprety
7. Community-Police Relation (CPR)
When we talk about SSR in Nepal, it is essential to briefly introduce CPR, which is taken as the prime component of security institutions in post–conflict period. The organizational structure of Nepal Police was designed by an officer of the Indian police commission who had come to Nepal in 2009 BS as police advisor (Rai, 2008). The Nepal Police, in tern, inherently influenced by colonial structure of India39 that put the whole police structure under the grip of a small elites group, who do not bother about people’s need. Instead, instead try to maintain their power by whatever means possible. The grip of high-caste group is so strong that the police have failed to acquire faith and support from grass root and marginalized people. The marginalized and non-elite have always complained about the discrimination and based approach of the state towards them.
Nepal Police is established to maintain, law and order and security in the country. The first Rana prime minister Jung Bhadur Rana first set up the police structure to maintain social security and established law and order in society. He set up three polices stations in Birathnager, two in sapateri and one in Mohotarai and all of them headed by lieutenants [Nepal Praharaiko Itihas (The History of Nepal Police)]. After the downfall of Rana regimes in 1951, the police headquarter was established to be headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP). However, Nepal Police was instituted in 1952 primarily consisting of the Mukti Sena the than ex-combatants of Nepali congress with a basic motto of ‘truth, service and security’. For this reason, it was intended to strengthen community-police relation despite several deficiencies prevailing within the system. However, following the royal coup of 1960, Nepal Police began to serve the interests of zonal commissioners.40 With the enactment of the Police Act in 1955, the foundations for the modern civil police force were created. Continue reading
Preliminary sociological observation of Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Nepal.
By Bishnu Pathak and Devendra Uprety
Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a continuous process to all countries and regions, including politically stable states, fragile states, and post-conflict countries. However, it is widely understood that there need to be urgent SSR priorities in countries emerging from large-scale violent conflict. Over the years, Nepalese society has undergone deep structural shift – a full decade of violent political upheaval abolished the 240 year Shah Dynasty and established a federal republic. Right now, Nepal is poised at a decisive crossroads in its transition from armed conflict to post-conflict recovery and democratic government2. Before the decade-long Maoists armed conflict, Nepal had not tolerated such an intense domestic violent crisis since the formation of the modern state. Nepal has long suffered from highly politicized security institutions. Politically, the state apparatus has been dominated by a few feudal elites who have been principally resistant to democratic reform. Particularly, the security sector has been much more complicated by nature of the long feudal-based autocratic political system.
In the long political history of Nepal, the military force was commanded by the dynastic monarchy or the hereditary Rana oligarchy. There has never been any precedent for aintaining civilian supremacy over the armed force.3 Highly use and misuse of national security agencies (army, police, and intelligence) by certain political parties for their specific ends creates further problems in the security sector. On the other side, it seems a more challenging situation in the security sector may occur in the coming days due to intense proliferation of hundreds of armed militant groups throughout the nation. The Maoists armies’ (re)integration into Nepal Army to form national army is again a major challenge to the nation. The demobilization and disarmament (DD) of the Maoists army4 under UNMIN supervision has already been completed. According to the agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies between the Nepal government and the Maoists on December 8, 2006, UNMIN has verified 19,602 Maoist combatants. These combatants ave been living in seven main and 21-satellite cantonments (see table) under the UNMIN’s supervision, after the completion of registration. Under Resolution 1740 (2007) UNMIN has been given the mandate to monitor the management of arms and armed personnel of the Nepal Army and the Maoist army, in line with the provisions of the Compressive Peace Agreement (CPA) and assist the parties through a Joint Monitoring Coordination Committee (JMCC) in implementing their agreement on the management of arms and armed personnel. Continue reading
A personal encounter with Nepal’s Maoist rebels is a ‘show’ of force in more ways than one.
By Kevin Sites
Pics and captions by Dinesh Wagle
Even if you don’t have a gun, act like you have one! That’s what this guerilla girl was doing in a parade organized on the play ground of a primary school in Kailali last week. Because of the free environment created after the ceasefire, many of the Maoist armed guerilla have gone on leave to see their families and friends in their homes. I saw several groups of unarmed guerilla in civil uniform with their backpacks. They were returning home. The far west division commander told that armed guerilla were decentralized after the ceasefire. “But we can’t go very far from each other,” he said. “Maximum three hours of walking distance.”
CHAINPUR, Nepal- They are just flashes of green as we drive past them: members of the Royal Nepalese Army in their jungle camouflage, out for their morning run. “Those are the ones we are fighting,” says one of the men in our spotless gold Land Cruiser. The others laugh. Continue reading