Category Archives: Secutiry

A study of DDR and SSR in Nepal

Preliminary sociological observation of Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Nepal.

By Bishnu Pathak and Devendra Uprety

1. Setting

Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a continuous process to all countries and regions, including politically stable states, fragile states, and post-conflict countries. However, it is widely understood that there need to be urgent SSR priorities in countries emerging from large-scale violent conflict. Over the years, Nepalese society has undergone deep structural shift – a full decade of violent political upheaval abolished the 240 year Shah Dynasty and established a federal republic. Right now, Nepal is poised at a decisive crossroads in its transition from armed conflict to post-conflict recovery and democratic government2. Before the decade-long Maoists armed conflict, Nepal had not tolerated such an intense domestic violent crisis since the formation of the modern state. Nepal has long suffered from highly politicized security institutions. Politically, the state apparatus has been dominated by a few feudal elites who have been principally resistant to democratic reform. Particularly, the security sector has been much more complicated by nature of the long feudal-based autocratic political system.

In the long political history of Nepal, the military force was commanded by the dynastic monarchy or the hereditary Rana oligarchy. There has never been any precedent for aintaining civilian supremacy over the armed force.3 Highly use and misuse of national security agencies (army, police, and intelligence) by certain political parties for their specific ends creates further problems in the security sector. On the other side, it seems a more challenging situation in the security sector may occur in the coming days due to intense proliferation of hundreds of armed militant groups throughout the nation. The Maoists armies’ (re)integration into Nepal Army to form national army is again a major challenge to the nation. The demobilization and disarmament (DD) of the Maoists army4 under UNMIN supervision has already been completed. According to the agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies between the Nepal government and the Maoists on December 8, 2006, UNMIN has verified 19,602 Maoist combatants. These combatants ave been living in seven main and 21-satellite cantonments (see table) under the UNMIN’s supervision, after the completion of registration. Under Resolution 1740 (2007) UNMIN has been given the mandate to monitor the management of arms and armed personnel of the Nepal Army and the Maoist army, in line with the provisions of the Compressive Peace Agreement (CPA) and assist the parties through a Joint Monitoring Coordination Committee (JMCC) in implementing their agreement on the management of arms and armed personnel. Continue reading

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BAD: PLA's Reaction to Nepal Army Recruitment

By Lilu Thapa

Following the lines of the Nepal Army’s recruitment, the PLA also has started its own recruitment process for the “vacant posts”. How sane is that decision by the Maoist leadership or what will be the extent and effect of this new development is yet to be seen. However, if this new recruitment from the PLA continues, it will have serious impacts in the already fragile political balance (or imbalance) that we have in the country. Continue reading

Maoist Campaigns and Elections Security Situation

Just because eight districts are having problems doesn’t mean rest of the 67 districts is deprived of the much needed democratic process. …if outfits that are terrorizing some parts of Terai don’t respond positively to the repeated calls for talks by the government the option of crushing them militarily should not be ruled out.

By Dinesh Wagle
Wagle Street Journal

[Update on Birgunj Blast: CDO among 30 injured in blasts near SPA assembly, MMT claims responsibility. details]

While passing through Minbhawan today, I saw a few wall paintings apparently sponsored by the Maoist party as part of their campaign for the elections of the Constituent Assembly. The publicity slogans asked the viewer to caste their votes for the Maoist party’s election symbol (hammer and sickle inside a circle). The graffiti also urged the people to push the party into victory so that Prachanda, the Chairman of the party, could be made the first president of Nepal. That made me happy. The Maoists, who threatened to disrupt the elections and were until recently fighting for the communist dictatorship, are now throwing themselves into the electoral democracy! This is a great change (probably the kind of change that Barrack Obama is advocating for in the US!) Here is another surprise: the Maoists are on the forefront of the electoral activities (last time it was the CPN UML) as they already finalized some of the candidates for the elections that also includes top leaders like Prachanda. (Prachanda will contest from Kathmandu and Rolpa and Dr. Baburam Bhattarai from Gorkha). If he contests from Kathmandu-1, then I will be one of his possible voters. Continue reading

Why Guerillas Flee Maoist Camps?

By Binod Tripathi in the Kathmandu Post

Shaktikhor (Chitwan)- A year back, when the third division cantonment had recently shifted to Chitwan from Kamidada of Kavre district, then division commander ‘Sonam’ had informed media that a total of 8,300 PLA fighters were stationed in the camps. Six months later, when the United Nations (UN) verification team visited the cantonment, they registered just 6,100 guerrillas there. The Maoist leadership at third division is tight-lipped when it comes to the 2,200 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) combatants who vanished.

Bhunesh Chaudhary, a PLA deserter who now works as a motorcycle mechanic in Chitwan, has an answer. Chaudhary said that he and seven of his fellow combatants ran away from the cantonment after they saw no future inside the camps. “I had joined the Maoists out of peer pressure,” Chaudhary told the Post, “But I eventually escaped the camp.” Continue reading

Jimmy Carter Came, Talked, Smiled and Went (Thanks Mr President!)

Here is the statement by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter made on June 16, last of his four-day trip to Nepal

I’m happy to be back in Nepal and to be briefed by The Carter Center’s long-term observers, political leaders, marginalized groups, and election officials here. I admire deeply what’s been accomplished by the people of this great country over the past year. The Carter Center is here to support you in any way that we can, and to that end our long-term observers have been deployed since March visiting over 70 districts to learn about the electoral and political environment.

Constituent Assembly election

Nepal is in the midst of a historic transformation and this difficult process requires shared commitment from the government, civil society, marginalized groups, and most importantly the public. The country has set itself the essential goal of holding a constituent assembly election, and I support the significant progress toward that objective that has been made during my short time here. I urge the government to swiftly complete all necessary electoral preparations in order to hold an election in the month of Mangsir (November/December), including announcing a date and resolving any outstanding issues such as the electoral constituencies. Compromise will be necessary to avoid conflict during this period.

Carter in Press Conference (Saturday)

My opinion is the United States should establish some communication with the Maoists because it is obvious that the people of Nepal have accepted the Maoists as playing a role in the shaping of the future of this country. I think the United States’ beneficial influence here will be increased if they can talk freely to all the parties involved. Maoists have complied with UN requirements, disarmed to some degree and adopted the principle of multi-party democracy. I hope there will be a time in the future when the United States can have free communication with all the important political players who will shape the future of Nepal.

When asked whether he is going to take some initiative to make the US government lift the terrorist tag, Carter said he doesn’t have any authority at all but he would send a report to the White House and the State Department. He didn’t use the words “lifting”, “terrorists” or “tags” but emphasized more than once that the US government should establish contacts with all parties that have been in the political framework legally.

Carter refuted the claim made by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai the other day after meeting the former president that he told the Maoist leaders not to listen to the US ambassador in Nepal.

Additionally, I would like to highlight two areas which I believe deserve increased focus in order to allow for an honest and credible election and future progress towards peace and reconciliation: Continue reading

Nepali Maoist: Ignorant or Arrogant?

Armed Maoist guerillas in a marketplace in Gaighat yesterday. Displaying arms in public like this is against the peace agreement they signed. Plus, the vehicle they were using didn’t have license plate. Pic by Rameshchandra Adhikari

Sometime these Maoists really make me wonder about them. It feels like they are a confused lot or ignorant about the area they are trying to venture into. Of course, there are many good things about them. They are the driving force behind the change Nepal is currently experiencing albeit the chaotic situation. The other day a Maoist “lawmaker”, who carried weapons in the parliament, challenged the speaker to take action against him. The next day, his boss in the party, apologized to the House for his brat cadre MPs remarks and behavior. They are trying to learn thing but at the same time doing foolish mistakes. Another example of their ignorance (or probably arrogance) comes from Udayapur on the front page of today’s Kantipur daily. The title of the news is: “Guerillas With Arms In Marketplace”. The photo, posted along with this article, shows guerillas on a pick up van without a license plate roaming around Udayapur Bazaar, Ghaighat district. -UWB

A report by Rameshchandra Adhikari:

Residents became fearful when a group of armed Maoist guerillas of the Bishalkumar Memorial Brigade under the second division of the Maoist Party came to the market area of Udayapur on Thursday (1 March). The guerillas, who came at around 8 AM, carried weapons like AK 47, SLR Insas and AMG, all registered to the UN according to a source. The guerillas went towards a place called Murkuchi in the evening. A district level leader, Deputy In-charge Deepak, said that the guerilla were there to provide security to the Maoist leader Ram Bahadur Thapa (Badal). But Badal had gone to Sunsari a day before. “We brought the weapons with permission from the UN for the security of comrade Badal,” he said. “Don’t take it otherwise.” Political parties and the administration have criticized the Maoists for displaying the arms in public even after signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that bars them from doing so.

Badal the Cloud

Meanwhile Badal, who reached the headquarter of Gaighat on Tuesday evening, warned media persons not to publish the photos of armed guerillas. When I tried to take a photo of the armed guerilla, Badal came forward, blocked the camera and warned me not to publish the photo. The weapons had the UN sticker and the guerilla who was carrying the weapon had agreed to pose for a photo. But Badal (a Nepali word for cloud) hurriedly came in between, tried to cover the weapon with his hand. And he said: “Don’t do mediabazi (publicize) with this photo. That might be challenging to you as well.”

General Problem in Army: Boys Feel Cheated

Rs Three billion is the amount misappropriated in Nepali Army. And Generals still claim this is a professional organization and boys still feel they are being cheated.

It was good to see Nepali Army holding a press conference to clarify some of the “misconceptions” regarding Army Welfare Fund but we could see generals lying at some points. First, contrary to their claims, the Fund is NOT transparent. The army has said that it will furnish all the details about the fund as demanded by a recent Supreme Court order. Good. After so many (13 to be specific) refusals to act on the SC orders, the army has finally decided to play by the rules. A welcome move but just saying it is transparent in front of reporters never makes Nepali public to believe them without any doubt. What we have been hearing is crystal clear: the soldiers in UN missions abroad are not getting the salary as per the agreement between the world body and the Nepali Army. That’s the main point. Solders are not happy, that’s the most important point. “Although the fund was supposed to have regular audits of its transactions, this has never happened ever since the fund was set up 30 years ago,” the Supreme Court order said, adding, “The fund has been run in a non-transparent way.” Rs 3 billion, the generals have accepted, is the total misappropriated fund! To make soldiers feel that they are not being cheated by their organization is the major challenge for the Nepali Army leadership. Boys feel they are being exploited for no good reason. That feeling must be removed once and for all as we are heading for the democratization of the national army. Boys must feel they are part of the organization. Continue reading

Has The War Started?

Royal Nepal Army goes offensive in the heartland of Maoists at a time when “terrorists” are observing ceasefire. Why?

rolpa heart patient

A problem in the Heart of the conflict affected area: Heart patient Sapana Magar receives saline solution in the mobile camp launched by the Army in Rangkot of Rolpa district on Thursday. Rolpa is also considered the “kingdom” of the Maoist party. All pics by Sudarshan Rijal via Kantipur

Seems the war is about to start from Rolpa. Kantipur reports that soldiers in large numbers have entered in the villages of Rolpa’s North-West region. “A team has gone to northern Thawang and another has reached Bhawang,” a source told Kantipur daily. “One team left on Saturday (six days ago) where as the other next day.”

Army started bringing soldiers here from the first week of Poush. Source said that soldiers from Dang and Chitwan were taken there. More than two thousand solders were airlifted a few days ago. Special Security Group (Ranger Battalion) is involved in the team.”

This is the first time army has gone out of barrack since Maoists unilaterally announced truce. Four Maoists were killed in a clash in Rolpa five days ago.

The army has requested development representatives active in the district not to go to villages for some time. “We have been warned about possible danger,” a representative of a development agency told. “Especially in the north-west region of the district.” According to a source, army plans to disarm Maoist guerillas in the operation. The operation would last for a few weeks for now.

Based on report by Kashi Ram Dangi via Kantipur

Central Special Task Force of the army has launched a Mobile Camp called “Pathivara” in Rolpa, Rukum and Salyan- districts worst affected by the Maoist violence. The Camp has been started as the extended ceasefire is about to end. Rebels have hinted that they would not prolong the truce. In this photo taken Thursday in Rangkot of Rolpa, general people take benefit of the Camp. A woman, lying on the ground, receives saline solution.General public in Chunwang, Rukim district, benefit from a mobile camp launched by the army. Government offices in the district are involved in the camp. Army’s Special Task Force and 19 Number Battalion are mobilized to coordinate the security efforts.

15 Responses to “Has The War Started?”

concerned Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 1:31 am
If the war has started, the rebels might start to strangel Kathmandu by blowing the bridges, electrical poles and interupting water supply.

It is an easy job as Kathmandu valley has just a few entries as Prithvi Narayan Shah already found out some 250 years ago.

krishna Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 1:49 am
Idiots are every where in every country… but sad fact is that in our country they become the rulers…
And it is justified also.. poor nepali people have suffered so much of proverty… no one can remove proverty but given the skills of maoists and the autoctaric government with its well-known army … poors can be reduced…

Be prepared to celebrate news after 5 years…. people below proverty line in nepal is 0%…. ha ha..

tamang Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 2:00 am
Thanks for giving ideas to the insurgents. Sooner the Maoist strangles Kathmandu, if they can, better it will be once and for all. Its better to deal with one evil than live with two evils. Waging the war in the far remote areas has not affected the citadel of power and corruptions and nothing likely to change if the Maoist does not intensify their campaign right into the heart of the country.

Global Voices Online » Blog Archive » Nepal: Ceasefire and RNA Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 3:01 am
[...] United We Blog! questions the moves of the Royal Nepal Army in the situation of the Maoist forces observing ceasefire. [...]

Sarki ko choro Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 7:36 am
History has shown (in Peru, Columbia and other parts of South America)that these socalled Maoists, Marxists eventually will turn into gangs of crimnals if they have not already done so.

Time and again Maoists also have shown that they are also nothing but a loose bunch of criminals who are used to live off looted money from poor people. They extort the teachers, small shop keepers, general public and kill the most vulnerable. We all have seen that they don’t have any popular support. Besides, they use ordinary civilians as human shield, thus they threat people as dispensible objects.

Maoists recruit children as their soldiers (although they sometimes deny that) and make school as the means for their propaganda as well as use it as their playground.

This has denied 1000’s of students their education and thier childhood. Thus they are also destroying the future of these kids and are committing the crime against humanity.

The morale of these Criminals are low, no wonder they are surrendering in droves. If Moists were capable of taking over the Kathmandu they would have done so long. In fact they have not been able to take over even a district headquarter.

Stop dreaming !!

Kendrika Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 10:04 am
I pray with God for the success of the operation launched by the Royal Nepal Army in Rolpa. War is unwanted but what could the RNA do. Just watch the senseless destruction and repression perpetrated by the Maoists? Don’t they have any responsibility to people of Nepal? This operation is the telling example that our army is fighting for us. I can’t imagine the situation Maoist capturing Nepal and Prachanda the Hitler ruling over us. Dear brothers in the Army, fight bravely. We are all with you. And I am saying this from deep inside my heart. Once Maoists are disarmed, I don’t say eradicated because they too are Nepali gone astray from right path, we will be able to enjoy peaceful days.

duke Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 1:10 pm
The answer of the why is they are planning and preparing to attack Kathmandu…..

rachana Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 1:56 pm
See The RNA posture in thise photos….

They are not there to fight but to help the poor villagers.

Go ahead RNA and free the people from Maoist tyrants!

Artha Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 2:06 pm
It is because of these useless bunch of 7 agitating parties that the country is in such a difficult predicament. They don’t want to participate in fresh elections. They claim to be the messiah of democracy but run away from the public. What nonsense is this?

Of course democracy is of the supermacy of the people not the 7 agitating parties. The 7 parties donâ??t represent the sovereign people of Nepal. If they think they do, why donâ??t they get the fresh mandate of the sovereign people ? Why run away from the people? Gather a handful of gangsters and then throw bricks at the street? They have been agitating for the last 4 years. Where have they reached? What have the Nepalese people got out of this agitation, useless and worthless as it is.

It seems you are the real slave of the Sujata and company that looted the RNAC into near bankruptsy. Stop living like a slave be a master. Contest the elections, donâ??t be afraid of going to the people. The people afterall are supreme.

swaraj Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 2:09 pm
The ceasefire called by the Maoists was only a tactical ploy. Nothing more to it. They declared ceasefire out of compulsion, compulsion dictated by India and masterminded by the 7 corrupt party leaders. The result was the 7 parties shook hands with the same terrorists who killed 13 thousand Nepalese during their own rule. The 7 parties have to share the blame for the killing of 13 thousand Nepalese since 1996.
The Maoists may extend ceasefore but that has little meaning to the Nepalese people. They must do negotiations with the government not with bunch of hoodlums in Ratna Park. The last 4 months of so-called ceasefire is a testimony of the fact how unpopular was the Maoist ceasefire, every Nepali knows that it was only a strategy not a real intention. Otherwise, why not do a ceasefire and negotiations with the government? Why with agitating 7 parties?

Sarki ko choro Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 2:18 pm
That’s what I feel too. Once the Maoist arms are controlled and their arms are ceased, we can use other means to redemocratise the country. Democracy has no meaning when your sisters, wifes, mothers are getting raped due to lack of security, we are getting lynched by gansters. All we need in Nepal is freedom from Maoist induced violence and insecurity.

If am alive, I will fight for democracy. Without life, democracy would only mean rights to “Shradhdha” for me by my sons!!

duke Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 6:49 pm
We also feel same thing maoists are playing the game…..

King Kong Says:

December 30th, 2005 at 10:04 pm
Shame on the fascists defending the undemocratic elections!

Yes, yes, the parties and the Maoists are really making a ploy to kick out the friendly ruler and his wonderful helpers. And how bad they are, they even do not want to take part in elections given by this saviour of Nepal. How undemocratic.

Just strange, that nobody of all you defenders of elections do not find anything strange in the king being head of government. Very strange, that you seem to forget, that the famous son of the ruler already killed people in the street, without being brought to justice.

So all you defenders of illegal rule, what about you? Aren’t the elections you offer now, just a show? Aren’t your soldiers killing and raping innocent citizens too? How can there be democracy, if certain people are above the law, if certain people may not even be criticized?

It is a pity to read all these comments, as they just show, that the suckers of Nepal are again cheating the simple illiterate masses. What the hell makes you better than these crazy Maoists? All of you believe in violence as a tool to rule. So all of you are not mature for democracy.

There is just one difference, the illiterate are not to be blamed for being immature for democracy. It is you, the literate defenders of this illegal rulership, who have to be blamed for the fascist attempt to capture the power in this country, where unfortunately the masses are still so uneducated not to understand your dirty game. Shame on all literate defenders of the illegal rule of this master, who is not shy of killing his own brother for power.

Soldiers of Nepal, lay down your weapons! Stop killing your brothers in the name of the richest suckers of Nepal!

King Kong says: Kings are history!

Sarki ko choro Says:

December 31st, 2005 at 12:12 am
Please note: We all want democracy in which people have the rights to express their views without being labelled a Fascist.

At the end of the day, we all want a better Nepal – why can’t we compromise?

Gthug Says:

December 31st, 2005 at 3:03 am
Both the Maoists and the RNA are at the same level when it comes to torturing and harassing people; as both have received hierarchical directives to do so. In the scuffle between the RNA and the Maoists it is the same people that end up in the ditch; the frontline guerillas of the Maoists and the foot soldiers of the RNA represent the same “socioeconomic class” both brothers’ victims of the same system. Not to mention the mass suffering as a result of the war are the very same people. The leaders on either side are running after their own vested interest/s using our people as mere tools for their cunning trade. I believe the time has come that we turn the barrel towards these crazy wolves/hyenas and put an end to this cycle of injustice.